Notes for the article:
'Ancient History of the Kingdom of Kerry'

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  • There is more text in these notes than there is in the article itself!
  • The author of these notes makes several references to page numbers of his manuscript of this article.  These page numbers did not correspond correctly when the article was published in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archæological Society.

  1. This proves that the present copy is only a transcript of another, older; whether the original or not, we cannot know, as there is no other copy in existence but the one from which this has been copied, in the R. I. Academy.

  2. This was very probably a History of the McCarthys by the celebrated Charles O'Connor, author of the translation of Keating's History of Ireland.  It was not published.

  3. This is inaccurate, as we have already proved in our preface (p, 116).  The O'Donoghues were driven from the plains of Munster after the English invasion, to Kerry.  Their ancestor was King of Cashel and Munster in 1043, as we see in our Annals:-- "Magrath O'Donoghue, lord of Eoghanacht Cashel, died; and in 1038, Cuduligh O'Donoghue, heir to the lordship of Cashel, was slain.  A.D. 1057--Donchudh O'Donoghue, lord of Eoghanacht Cashel, was killed.  A.D. 1063--Cathal O'Donoghue, king of the Euchii and of Southern Ireland, died; Conor O'Donoghue, heir of Cashel, died, A.D. 1078."  For the first time, in 1611, we see that Hugh, son of Auliffe O'Donoghue, is called Prince of Lough Lene.  After this date the name recurs at nearly every page of the Annals of Innisfallen, as we have shown in our History of the O'Donoghues.  This clearly proves the O'Donoghues came here in the middle of the twefth century, or late in the eleventh century.  The Moriartys, however, were an old Milesian clan of Kerry, and are mentioned in O'Heerin, as can be seen in our History of this very ancient and illustrious Kerry family.  The O'Moriartys were driven out of the Killarney district by the O'Donoghues, A.D. 1192.  The Moriartys must have been here almost contemporaneously with the O'Conors, as we see in all our old Annals that they are mentioned as Princes of Kerry from a very early date, especially in the Annals of Innisfallen, as can be seen in this History of Kerry at p. 9, where the year is mentioned when the O'Donoghues "wrested their property from them, at Loch Leen."

  4. "The O'Sullivans," says MacFirbis, "are an older race than the MacCarthys, though preference is given to the MacCarthys, as they were the more powerful chiefs."

  5. On this legend O'Curry writes -- "Modern writers of family Irish history have endeavoured to make Eochaidh the ancestor of the O'Sullivan family," and, "to be the person who granted his only eye to the demand of a malicious Scotch poet, and that it is from that circumstance that the name O'Suilabhain -- that is, the one-eyed -- is derived.  But there are two objections to the truthfulness of this version of the story.  The first is, that the tale I have just noticed is certainly older than the time of this latter Eochaidh; the second objection is, that if there were the derivation of the name it should be written with the letter m instead of the b, which is always found in it: that is, the word should be Suilamhain (or one-eye), and not Suilabhain, as it is generally (but not always) written in the ancient MSS.  The fact is, however, that both these spellings are incorrect, and that the family in best spellings is written O'Suildhubhain, or the black-eyed."  But Mr. William Hennessy, M.R.I.A., the best Irish scholar of our day, says -- "The other readings of the word Suldubhan probably represent the more correct form of the name, which would then mean Suildubain, hook-eyed."  For ourselves, as we have given in the History of the O'Sullivans, "we hold to the generally received, and, to our mind, most natural meaning of the term, one-eyed chief." The genealogy of the family, as given by Mr. Hennessy in the, "McGillicuddy Papers," begins with this Eochaid in 950, and he, according to all our Annalists, was called the one-eyed chief (see History of Muckross Abbey, chap. ix.)

  6. There is nothing very miraculous in this, which happened on account of the eloquence of Columcille, and the respect due to his holiness and learning.

  7. This is, indeed, a miracle, and one of the " first class"; but we are sorry he has not given us more particulars about it.  How it could have been "more than a miracle" surpasses our comprehension.

  8. Of this again he gives no authentic circumstances to prove its truth.  We know that in the lives of the Saints; and in the life of the "Saint of Saints," such have happened, as in the case of Lazarus, and the mother of St. Catherine of Siena, and several other well attested examples; but in all these cases we ought to have the names of the authors, and of the living witnesses for such marvels of God's goodness to man.

  9. The boast of the family was, which, indeed, they always sustained in practice:--

    Nulla manus tam liberalis,
    Et generalis atque universalis,
       Quam Sullivanus.

    No hand so liberal,
    And so general and universal,
       As the O'Sullivan.

    See some interesting details of their generosity and liberality in History of Muckross, chap. ix., x., xi., xii.  O'Heerin records the magnanimous spirit that always characterised this noble family of the O'Sullivans:--

    Irish script
    O'Sullivan who loved no oppression,
    Over the great Eoghanacht of Munster;
    Under Cnock Rafoun he obtained his land,
    After gaining battles and conflicts.

    They were originally the Princes of Cnock Rafoun (Raffan) and Clonnicala (Clonmel), in the Co. Tipperary, but having, been driven from this rich territory by the English in 1192 they sought a home in the mountains of Cork and Kerry.  They then wrested the lands of Bearra and Bantry from the O'Driscols and Dunkerron and parts of the lands of Iveragh from the O'Falveys and O'Sheas, in Kerry.  The O'Sullivan More was a very powerful chief in Kerry in the time of Elizabeth.  Sir William Herbert in his tracts, Calendar State Papers, 1588, p. 538: "The O'Sullivan More is lord of a great country, he is the Earl of Clancar's, Seneschal, and Marshal, married to Florence MacCarthy's sister, and able to make a hundred swords" (to bring a hundred soldiers equipped with swords). . . . "He is chief in this action," -- that is, the marriage of Florence MacCarthy with the Earl of Clancar's daughter.  The O'Sullivan More had a princely mansion at Dunkerron, and excerised there a princely hospitality.  See a description of the ruins of this castle in the Kilkenny Archæological Society's Journal, March, 1859, vol. p. 291, which also has a very interesting historical account of the family of Dunkerron and Cappanacuss.  See also the historical sketch of these O'Sullivans in History of Muckross, chap. vii., viii., ix., x.; and the account of the O'Sullivans Beara, Chap. xi., xii., and xiii.

  10. "The O'Donoghues," says O'Brien, "originally settled in that part of Desmond, now the county of Cork, where they possessed a large territory, extending from Inniskean to the borders of Bantry, and from thence to Ballyvourney and Macroom, comprising the district of Iveleary, and a great portion of Muskerry; but in the middle of the eleventh century they were driven from their possessions in Cork by the McCarthys and O'Mahonys, and settled in Kerry, where they became owners of a great part of the country round Lough Lein."  The O'Donoghues of the Glen continued to be a powerful sept in Kerry to our own days, as they alone, of all the great Irish chieftains, remained unconquered and unconquerable in the fastnesses of the mountains of Glenflesk.  The other branch, or "The O'Donoghue More" of Ross Castle, fought at the side of the unfortunate Earl of Desmond, and lost all their estates in the Geraldine confiscations.  This branch of the O'Donoghues is now extinct.  See a full account of both branches, and the authentic pedigree of this illustrious Irish sept, in the History of Muckross Abbey, chap. xxi., xxii., xxiii., ct seq.

  11. The Moriartys: their tribe name was Aos-Aisde, as we see in O'Heerin --

    Irish script
    Aos-Aisde, of the flock abounding plain,
    The hero O'Moriarty has obtained
    A fine land with green aspect,
    O'h-Imhasbain has acquired.    (O'Donovan.)

    This territory extended from Loch-Lein (Killarney) along the river Mang to the sea.  They also possessed the parishes of Templenoe and some adjoining districts before the advent of the O Sullivans to Kerry.  According to our author they owned all Desmond, and quietly handed it over to their brother chieftains, dispossessed of their lands in the rich plains of Munster.  We believe, however, they were forced, like the O'Falveys, the O'Driscols, the O'Carrols, and the O'Connells to give up their ancestral territories to the O'Sullivans, the McCarthys, and the O'Donoghues; and especially to the latter, who were the kings of all Munster, and who had suzerain rights over the whole south of Ireland.  The family of the O'Moriartys is mentioned in our old Annals of Innisfallen, at 1067, 1068, 1107, 1140; and at A.D. 1195, we find the following remarkable entry: Mahon, son of Moriarty (Muircheartagh), was slain by a O'Donoghue, who then wrested the country from the Moriartys.  This is how the Moriartys "resigned and made over without any disputes or blows the major part of the county of Desmond," as our author very naively puts it, lest his namesakes the O'Sullivans would be accused of usurping the lands of the Moriartys around Kenmare and Bantry.

  12. The late learned Bishop of Moriarty. -- There was also in our own days "a learned Bishop the Moriartys," one whose equal the name has not had in the past, and assuredly has not in the present; for of him, and of him alone, it has been said by one of the greatest minds of our day.  He was "the centre of many minds, a blessing to the Irish people, and a light in the Universal Church" (Card. Newman).  See chap xxviii. and xxx. in History of Muckross Abbey.  The arms of the family -- Argent, an eagle displayed, sable.  Crest -- An arm embodied in armour holding a dagger, the blade environed with a serpent.  Genkin Conway writes to Walsingham in 1587: If the Moriartaghs do make any complaint unto your honour about a castle, which I do of right possess, called by the name of Castle Drom (Killarglyon), which they challenge as theirs, etc. . . . I am to request your honour to take it over to the Vice-President and to the rest of the Commissioners, etc., Calendar State Papers, 1587, p. 426.

  13. There is a full description of these lands in the McGillicuddy Papers, p. xii.  In the "Return by order of the Lords Justices, the House of Lords, or the Court of Claymes," Lt. Coll. McGillicuddy is set down for 66,500 a. "in Kerrye"; and in another return for 6,500 a. (Carte Papers, vol. 44. p. 366 -- at the years 1662 and 1663).

  14. This Florence O'Sullivan, President of the Irish College, succeeded his uncle, John, in the year 1699.  John left 732 florins for Bourses to the Irish College, which now realize 9,568 fr., about £380 per annum.  The Bourses were left for his relations of the second degree, provided they were born in Ireland, etc.  The Very Rev. Florence O'Sullivan, the nephew, died 19th August, 1731.  He left 1,098 florins for students in theology, philosophy, law, and medicine.  It is now worth only 973 fr., 05c.  (See a sketch of their lives and an account of these Bourses of Louvain in the History of Muckross Abbey, chap, 13.)  Both these priests and Presidents of the Irish College were born at Dunkerron, and therefore of the O'Sullivan More's family, and were not descendants of the McGillicuddy's branch, as here stated.


    Our information regarding these two Presidents of the Irish College, Louvain, is from the most authentic sources, as it has been supplied to us by our good friend, the learned Monsignor Mercier, President of the College of St. Thomas, Louvain, who kindly sent us the work of the erudite antiquarian, Monsignor Reusens, on the "Colleges of Louvain."  Monsignor Reusens himself has copied all these documents from the originals.  If we can command time, we hope to have a personal investigation of these bourses, and to procure the names of all those who studied upon them, from their foundation.  In the meantime, could not those who have enjoyed the generosity of these illustrious Kerrymen subscribe for some lasting memorial to them in the cathedral of Killarney, or in the church of Templenoe -- their native parish; I am quite sure the O'Sullivans in Kerry, and those scattered through the world, would willingly join in erecting this memorial.  We are very glad we can prove by this sketch of the life of John O'Sullivan written by contemporary authors (Paquot and Bax), that he had a brother, and that his successor, as President of the Irish College, was a son of that brother.  This has been denied by the authorities now in possession of the bourses.  The account, however, of Louvain must be the most authentic, as it is taken from his baptismal certificate and the documents referring to his office of president.  We hope to be able to glean some other valuable information about these bourses and their founders when we go to Louvain and examine these documents at our leisure.  We now place before our readers the short sketch of the lives of the founders of the bourses, literally translated from Monsignor Reusen's work, and we add a short account of all the remaining bourses, with their present yearly value.


    John Sullivan, of Dunkerron, in Ireland, fifth from the College of "Porco," was a lector in the monastery of Lobby, and afterwards a missionary in Ireland.  He was called back from his native country, to Belgium by the Internuncius Apostolic, and by him was appointed president or coadjutor to Peter Damman, President of the Druitian College.  After Peter Damman's death John Sullivan was appointed President of the College.  He was, however, obliged to resign this office, when another, who was named by the founder, Druitio, offered himself.  John Sullivan, in the meantime, returned to his Irish College, where he remained president till at least 1696.  He then either resigned in favour of Florence O'Sullivan, who was his brother's son, or he took him for his coadjutor.  He died 16th May, 1699, aged sixty-six years.  His epitaph in the church of Herent is -- "Collegii Hibernorum Praeses et Benefactor."  "John Sullivan, President and Benefactor of the Irish College."  Herent is a small hamlet, or farm, with a few houses, near Louvain, which belongs to the bourses of the Irish College.  He left 732 florins for bourses.  These now realise 9,568 fr. 83 cent. per an.  We give again the original documents from the archives of Brussels on these bourses, as a great many families in Kerry are interested in them: -- John Sullivan, in 1699 (the year of his death), granted 732 florins for Irish students in Rhetoric, Philosophy and Theology, for his relations of the second degree, provided they were born in Ireland.  The presentation was in two Doctors of Theology, chosen by the Rector in "Strict Faculty."  John Fitzgerald enjoyed this in 1780, M. Sullivan in 1782, and Daniel Magrath in 1784.


    Florence O'Sullivan, an Irishman, and nephew of the last President of the Irish College, was born in 1655, and was sixth (e Lillis) in arts, and afterwards a student in the Irish College.  The year 1692, or perhaps, more truly speaking, 1694 -- for then he was Licentiate, and entering the Faculty of Arts, he was one of those deputed by the Faculty to elect a Rector of the University, and President of the Irish College -- he was given as successor to John O'Sullivan, who then governed the Druitian College.  In the year 1697, when his uncle John resigned, or when in 1699 he died, Florence was appointed President of the Irish College.  In the year 1698 he was created Doctor of Theology.  He died unexpectedly, 19th August, 1731, from the effects of wounds he received in a fall on Mount Roseelberg.  He is buried in the Church of St. James, in which is his epitaph.

    Florence Sullivan, in 1732, granted 1098 florins for students in Philosophy, Theology, Law, and Medicine, a preference to be given his kindred to the third degree, then to the O'Sullivans of Kerry, the MacCarthy's of Kerry, or Datives of Kerry, Cashel, or Ulster.  The oldest Doctor in Theology, the President of the College, and the oldest visitor were the Presentors.  It is now worth only 973 fr. 05 cents.


    Foundations administered by the Provincial Commission of Brabant --
    1. Duiegenan, Helen (she granted in 1770, 7,848 florins) -- 17 francs, 50 centimes.
    2. Hurley, Thomas (granted in 1697, 3,200 florins) -- 152 fr. 87 c.
    3. Kent, John (in 1781, 707 florins for Waterford) -- 1197 fr. 77 c.
    4. Magrath, Raymond (granted in 1780, 9,402 florins) -- 42 fr. 50 c.
    5. Mauricy (Hugh) Morrissy, (gave 2,373 florins in 1680) -- 548 fr. 64 c.
    6. Morgan Colomba (she gave 7,044 florins in 177) -- 0.0.
    7. Nottingham, Roger (1,000 florins in 1692) -- 1754 fr. 08 c.
    8. O'Brien, Bishop of Cloyne (217 florins in 1796) -- 0.0.
    9. Roche, David and Paul (6,008 florins in 1727) -- 2454 fr. 81 c.
    10. Sullivan, Florence (1,098 florins in 1732) -- 973 fr. 05 c.
    11. Tyrrell, Thomas (4,800 florins in 1771) -- 0.0.
    12. Tuohy, Edmund (4,585 florins in 1782) -- 0.0.
    13. Pope Urbain VIII., Prosser and Shinkin (8,000 florins) -- 1837 fr. 69 c.


    Foundations administered by the Office of the Seminary of Malines --
    1. Connolly, Arnold (2,383 florins in 1715) -- 146 fr. 11 c.
    2. French, Nicholas, Bishop of Ferns (600 florins in 1683) -- 231 fr. 50 c.
    3. Mathew, Eugene, Bishop of Dublin (gave 2,400 florins in 1624) -- 172 fr. 9c.
    4. Normel, James (in 1653 gave 933 florins) -- 233 fr. 47 c.
    5. Sullivan, John (see his life here) -- 9568 83.
    6. Theige, Matthew (in 1652 gave 5,702 florins) -- 1,302 fr. 65 c.

    We clearly see here why the bourses of this last list are yet so valuable, and those of the first so profitless: -- the one is in the hands of Ecclesiastics, and the other is in the power of seculars.  The bourse of John O'Sullivan would have been also lost were it not that, through the powerful influence of Doctor Moriarty, Earl Granville brought such pressure on the liberal (infidel) government of Belgium of the day, that they were obliged to hand over this bourse to the ecclesiastical authorities in Belgium; and thus this inestimable boon has been secured to all future generations of the O'Sullivans, by this illustrious Bishop, and the practical interference of his secretary, now the Most Rev. Doctor J. Coffey, Bishop of Kerry.

  15. Their territory extended from Tuosist, south-side of the "Wide embayed Maire" (Kenmare bay), to the confines of county Cork.  Father O'Sullivan's baptismal name was Dermott, which was changed to Francis when he entered religion.  "He was born," says Father L. Browne, O.F.M., "about the beginning of the seventeenth century, and having received the elements of education at home, proceeded to Spain, where more than one of his name held high rank in Court and field.  He there entered the Franciscan Noviciate.  He read a distinguished course in the Order, and took out his degree in theology.  In 1630 he bade farewell to the schools in Spain, and returning to his native land, entered upon the dangerous Irish Mission.  The principal scene of his labours was Kerry.  He was Guardian of Ardfert for several years, and Lynch, in his MS. History of the Irish Bishops, tell us that when Geoffrey O'Daly, Bishop of Kerry, opened a College at Tralee; Dermot O'Sullivan, O.S.F., was among the professors of theology.  The others were Conor M'Carthy, Pastor of Kilintiarna (Kileentierna); Thaddeus Moriarty, O.P., and James Mahony, O.S.A.  The esteem in which he was held in his own Order is shown by his name being placed by the Chapter of Kilconnell, in 1645, on the list from which the future Commissary-Visitator should be selected.

    "When the great rising of 1641 took place, the Munster chiefs cast about for the fittest person to plead the cause of their country and religion at the Court of Spain.  Their choice fell upon Father Francis O'Su1livan.  He accepted the embassy, and was so successful in his suit that he obtained, in a short time, from Philip IV., three thousand pounds in silver and a large supply of muskets and ammunition.  These much needed succours were speedily despatched to Ireland, and reached Dungarvan in safety.  Having fulfilled his mission, he appears to have returned without delay.  He was certainly in Ireland, and Guardian of Ardfert, in 1645.

    "Desolation and blood ushered in the mid-century.  The five days' slaughter at Drogheda, the murdered women and children round the great cross in the Bull-ring of Wexford, and worse than all, the calamitous death of Owen Roe O'Neill on his march southwards to cross swords with Cromwell -- these are the harrowing scenes, at which we shudder even now as we read, that chilled the blood and palsied the arm of the Catholic soldiers of Ireland during the closing months of 1649.  Leinster and the greater portion of Munster were overrun by the Parliamentarians in the beginning of the new year, and when the Franciscan Chapter met at Kilconnell, on August 17th, 1650, there only remained to the Confederates the seaports of Limerick and Galway, and some of the western counties.  Notwithstanding the dangers which beset the way the Fathers assembled in their full number.  All the "vocals" were present, that is all who had the right of voting in the elections.  The first business was the consideration of the conduct of those who had supported Caron in his opposition to the Nuncio and to the late Provincial.  Most of them appeared before the Chapter, and having made complete submission, were, thereupon, absolved from the censures they had incurred, and dismissed to the convents.  Father Francis O'Sullivan was then elected Provincial, and Guardians appointed for sixty-two convents in Ireland, and for the four colleges on the Continent which belonged to the Irish province, viz.: For St. Antony's at Louvain, St. Isidore at Rome, the College of Immaculate Conception at Prague, and the newly-acquired convent at Vielum in Poland.  As these, under the circumstances of the time, could not be governed from Ireland, the Provincial delegated his powers to the celebrated Father John Colgan, and appointed him Commissary, with full jurisdiction over all our houses beyond the seas.

    "Before the Chapter separated it was announced that since September, 1647, one hundred and twenty of the brethern had died, many of them, we may be sure, from ill-treatment and exposure, and that fourteen had suffered martyrdom . . . In 1653, we find him instructing ("erudiens," Lynch writes) the Catholics of Dunkerron and Iveragh.  He could, at least, trust the fidelity of his own kith and kin, and here, if anywhere, he was secure.  But, no, the merciful Lord had chosen to call his servant.  He had fought the good fight, and the crown was ready for the victor.

    "In June, a company of Cromwellian troops, under the command of Colonel Nelson, defiled through the mountain passes of West Kerry.  Rapine and murder marked their track.  The terrified inhabitants fled to the hiding places of the reeks and glens.  The Provincial retired to the Atlantic sea-board, and finally took refuge in Scarriff, an island to the north of the Kenmare River, some two or three miles off Darrynane. . . . On the eve of the feast of the Baptist a troop of Nelson's solders landed on the island.  Father O'Sullivan had concealed himself in a cave on the shore.  They quickly discovered his hiding place, and rushed upon the defenceless priest.  Their muskets were raised to fire, but before the shots could take effect, a wretch sprang forward and cut off the upper portion of his skull with one blow of his sword.  Thus died the martyr of Christ, on June 23rd, 1653.  Many years had he laboured for the Master, and when dangers came, when the wolves overran the vinyard, he laboured still, and flinched not.  If he seemed to retreat before the ravening pack, it was in obedience to the Gospel precept, "If they persecute you in one city, flee into another." (Matt. c. x., v. 23.)  Like St. Mark, he neither feared to die, nor yet refused to live in the need of his brethren.

    "His body was laid at rest in the little graveyard on the eastern side of the island, and for many years the "martyr's grave" was pointed out with reverence.  Some time after the events narrated above, Scarriff came into possession of the O'Connells of Darrynane.  One of the family removed the upper portion of the skull to their residence, where it was religiously venerated as the relic of a martyr for several generations.  Even so late as the time of Maurice O'Connell, the Liberator's uncle, it was brought forward on important occasions when people of the neighbourhood were being sworn, to impart solemnity to the truth."

    "Provincials of the Franciscan Order in Ireland.  Fran. Tertiary, March, 1898 p. 321.  By V.R. Father Lawrence Browne, O.F.M., Cork."

  16. These are given in the McGillicudy Papers, p. 197.

  17. In the McGillicuddy Papers, p. 39, there is a Deed of Mortgage conveying the lands of Cullinagh, Killow, etc., from the O'Sullivans of Culemagort to Donogh McGillicudy.  It is dated 1642.

    "To all X'pian (Christian) people to whome this p'nt (present) deede of Mortgadge shall come, Joal1 Fitzmorish, als (alias) Sullevane, the relict of Donnell o Sullevane More, Esqr., late deceased; Owen o Sullevane More, Esqr.; Owen McOwen o Sullevane of Ballymcgillynavla, and Donnell o Sullevane of Culemagort, in the County of Kerry, gent, send greeting in our Lord God everlasting; know ye that we the said Joan, Owen o Sullevane, Esqr., etc., for sundry good and valuable considerac'ons and causes us thereunto (sic.) moveing and especially for, and in considerac'on of the just and full sum'e of one hundred pounds ster'. . . . Have given, graunted, mortgadged, bargained, sould, and confirmed . . . unto the said Joan, Owen o Sullevane. . . . All that and those the towne and lands of the plough lands of Cullynagh . . . the town and lands of Stronashyrry, containing one plough land, . . . and a plowland of the two plough lands of Killow, in Toragh . . . to have and to hould unto the said Donogh, his heires, Executors, etc. . . . for ever, etc. . . .  Lastly, know ye that wee the s'd Joan, Owen o Sullevane More, etc., etc., doe hereby nominate, depute, and authorise our well-beloved John McTeig oge Cuddy, of Culeanagh, in the said county, gent, our true and lawfull Attourney, etc., etc.

    "Signed, sealed, and delivered to the s'd Attourney in p'sence of whose names doe ensue."

    There was a long litigation on this Deed of Mortgage between the McGillicudy and the O'Sullivans.  A very curious reason is given in a Petition of McGillicudy to Lord Inchiquin, President of Munster, for the miscarriage of the Deed:-- "The distempers of the tymes . . . by means whereof yr pettioner hitherto reaped noe pr'fitt nor benefitt of the lands aforesaid."  Inchiquin gave an order for the investigation of the case from Castle Lyons, 12th December, 1648, which was decided in favour of the McGillicudy; but it is absolutely certain this family never obtained possession of those lands.  They passed away from the family and name in the confiscations of the Prince of Orange.

    At the Supreme Council of Kilkenny the sept was represented by O'Sullivan More of Dunkieran, and Daniel O'Sullivan of Culmagart.  This proves that the family of Culmagart were a powerful branch of the sept up to the Cromwellian confiscations.

  18. This family was evidently extinct in Ireland when the author wrote this history.  There may, however, be some of this branch still existing in France, as the representative of the family was then "of note" in that country.  It is a melancholy fact that all those different branches here mentioned of the O'Sullivans of Kerry, as (2) the Glanbegh, (3) the Caneaeh, (4) the Culemagort, (5) the Cappanacus, (6) the Fermoyle and Ballycarna, and (7) the Ballyvicgullan-avlaun or Cumenururevart Sliocht McCrah families are now extinct or unknown.  This is owing to the exodus in the years forty-eight and forty-nine of this century, when all these middle-men families were ruined by the famine of '47 and '48, and passed away leaving no trace whatsoever of their opulence and position of 150 years ago.

  19. In 1376, "The King at the instant of his faithful liege, Mac Carty of Desmond, Captain of his nation, granted to Thomas O'Sullevan, and Mac Creagh O'Soulevan [we see by this that the Mac Crah (Creagh) were a very old branch of the O'Sullivans] liberty to pass over to the Court of Rome, provided they carried, or did nothing prejudicial to the English king." -- Dalton's Army List, vol. i. p. 261.

    The lineal descent from McCrah Rua who proceeded Rury Don, as O'Sullivan More, and from whom the Sliocht McCrah are named, is as follows:-- McCrath (or Creagh), Conor, Owen, Buadhach ("Bogg," or "Boetius"), Donogh, Conor, Owen, Dermot, Owen, Dermot.  Conor died 7th January, 1639.  Owen was killed at Glanmore. -- MSS. in T.C.D.

    Michael O'Sullivan of Killarney is the only lineal descendant we know of the Sliocht O'Sullivan McCrah.  He and his brothers and cousins of Firies, can claim this proud distinction of tracing their family pedigree to the last of these here mentioned --Conor, who died in 1639.

    The following certificate of the Under Sherriff of the County Kerry, of his having put Mrs. Lily Sullevane in possession of the lands here melltioned, shows that a large property remained in the O'Sullivan More family in Iveragh up to 1651.

    "A note of O'Sullyvan's Chifferies in the Barony of Ivraigh :--
    Oghlaff a pd and a third part of p'dxxvis. viid. ster.
    Dromod 2 p'ds2ii. 6s. viiid. ster.
    Dromod belonging to Dominick Mce Bruige a pdxxvs. ster.
    Durie, a p'dxxvs. ster.
    Mortagh Mce Owen, out a p'd of Cannigxix.
    Donill Mce Broige, a pdxxviii. ster.
    Roger Mce Mortagh, out of Canniogexiis. viiid. ster.
    Donill Mce Donough, a p'dxxviis. ster.
    The said Donill Mce Donough, of Droniniragh, a p'dxxvs. ster.
    Donill Mce Owen of Kilmakierin, a p'd.xxiis. ster.
    More out of the said Killmakierinxxiis. ster.
    Briaghig, a p'dxxvs. ster.
    Caneh, 4 p'l'ds.
    Jefferie Mce Richard, out of Agort, a pl'dxxs. ster.
    Roger Mce Mortaghvis. viiid. ster.
    Killeno Gaha (torn).
    Glughanetaunig (torn).
    Killnobounie belonginge to Owen Mce Donill Mce Phillipxxxs. ster.
    The other Kilnobouniexxviiis. viiid. ster.

    Being p'nt (present) at the time when possession was delivered unto Mrs. Lily O'Sullyvane by George Barrie, under Sherriffe of th' above Te's and rents belongeinge to O'Sullyvane More, wee whose names ensue
    Thomas Broune.
    Morish Mce Donough.
    John Mce Edmond his + marke.
    Donill Mce Swiny his + marke.
    Donough Mce Dermody his + marke.

    I doe hereby certifie that by virtue of the Right Honoble the Lo. Deputie's warrant, I have delivered quiet and peaceable possession of the Te's and Chieferents of O'Sullyvane More into Mrs. Lyly O'Sullyvane, wthin the Barronie of Dunkierane, and soe much I thought fitt to signifie under my hand.  Datii V die decr. 1651.
    Roseconsan, half a ploughlandxxs. ster.
    Gortecomagh, 2 plowlands4li. ster.
    Gricnane, halfe a plowllindxxs. ster.
    Cappanscosse, two plowlandsiiii li. ster.
    Cappaghroo, two plowlandsiiii li. ster.
    Lackeire, two plowlandsiiii li. ster.
    Durrinefuile, halfe ploughlandxvs. ster.
    Derrevurro, halfe a ploughlandxvs. ster.
    Droumloskie, a plowlandxxxs. ster.
    Letternuil, halfe a ploughlandxvs. ster.
    (Torn.  Two entries are here illegible.)
    Derrikine, a plowlandxxxs. ster.
    Gortegoune and Clouncallineiii li. ster.
    Ballineliagles, half a plowlandxvs. ster.
    Macera Mce Teige, of Driminisse, 2 p'ldsiiii li. ster.
    Drimineiragh, a plowlandxxxs. ster.

    Being p'nt (present) at the time when th' above George Berrie under Sherriffe delivered possession unto th' above Mrs. Lyly Sullyvane of the above Tenements, wee whose names ensueth: -- Edmond Honlaghan. -- Thomas Browne. -- Donough Mce Sermodieglas his + marke. -- John Mce Thomas his + marke. -- Donil Mce Swiney his + marke. -- Morish Hoare his + mark. -- John Mce Edmond his + marke."
    ("MacGillicudy Papers," pp. 56, 57, 58.)

    In 1657 we find in the same Papers the following Commission for Owen O'Sullivan, son of the above mentioned Lyly O'Sullivan:--
    "Charles R. [Autograph.]
    "Charles, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c.  To our trusty and wellbeloved Owen O Sullyvane, Ensign, Greeting.  Know you that We, reposing trust and confidence in yo'r diligence, fidelitie, and experience in military affairs, Doe hereby constitute and appoint you to be Enseigne of one Company of foote, where of Colonel Gilbert Talebott is Captaine, in the Regiment of our most dear and entirely beloved brother, Henry Duke of [Gloster], whereof Tibault, Lord Viscount Taf', is Colonel. . . .
    "Given at our Court of Bruges in Flanders, this eleventh day of January 1657, in the eight year of our Reigne.  By his Mat. command.  ("McGillicuddy Papers," p. 59.)

    "Edw. Walker."

    In 1661, Viscount Tauffe certified that the above Owen O'Sullivan always served "With all integritie, care, diligent (sic.) and obedience, and also demeaning himself as did become a valiant and worthy officer."  (11 Jan., 1661, p. 60.)

    In 1665, the McGillicudy's Certificate was confirmed under the Act of Settlement for 2000 acres, Irish, or 3239 acres, 2 poles, 17 roods, English, in the Barony of Dunkerron, at a yearly rent to his Majesty of £30, 7s. 5d.

    On 25th January, 1666, McGillicudy gets an order from Ormond to allow ten firearms in his house for its defence, at Carrubeg, and three cases of pistols for travelling arms.

    He also got a license to visit London with his son, Denis, 13th February, 1673.

    "And Patrick Trant maketh oath that Col. Donogh MacDonogh MacGillicudy and Denis MacGillicudy, his Son, hath necessary occasion to come to the Cities of London and Westminster, to follow their business.

    "28 die Jan'ry, Mo. Brampton.  (Idem, pp. 79, 98.)      P. Trant."

  20. From an inquisition held at Tralee, "On the lands Cnogher, McDermott O'Swillyvane, of Cappanacathy, on the 21 September, 1694, we find that said Cnogher died 7th January, 1639, and was succeeded by his son Owen McCnogher as above."  This Owen was killed at Glanmore, and a younger brother at the foray at Nedeen Fort.  The charges on the Cappanacoss estate were £4, to O'Sullivan More for Cappanacoss, and 30/- besides; to McCarthy More, 12/-; and to the Countess of Desmond, 5/6.

    "At the Court of Claims, Daniel O'Sullevane More, claimed and was allowed a fee by descent from Daniel O'Sullivan, his grandfather, in Tomies at Killarney, forfeited by Sir Nicholas Browne."

    The last of this branch of the O'Sullivans of the Tomies, Donal O'Sullivan More, died in 1762.  His great-grandson, Dr. O'Sullivan of Rathmore, owns yet a small remnant of the Tomies property.  The rest was bought by the Herbert family.  The Liberator had a very heated correspondence with the Herbert of the day on the sale of that property.  See Last Colonel of the Irish Brigade, vol. II. p. 268, and History of Muckross Abbey, chap. xxv.  In his letter of November 19, 1839, the Liberator says: -- "If a Catholic purchased an estate, paying the price, any Protestant could by law take awav the estate from the Catholic, and leave him at the total loss of both the estate and his purchase money. . .  To illustrate the mischief of that law, I stated what I had repeatedly heard from my uncle, the late Mr. Maurice O'Connell, of Derrynane, it was precisely this -- that when the estate of "Tomies on the Lake" was offered for sale he agreed to purchase it, and had the purchase-money ready; and that thereupon the ancestor of the present Mr. Herbert sent him a communication to this effect, that if he (my uncle) became a purchaser, he (Mr. Herbert) would immediately file a bill of discovery (that was a technical name of the mode of legal plunder) against my uncle, and deprive him of the estate.  So that my uncle would have, in that case, lost his money and his land." -- Idem., p. 261.

    In the Court of Claims, Sheely Sullivane, widow and executrix, of Donald Sullivane More, and Desmond Sullivane, their son and heir, claimed interests in Cork lands, forfeited by the Earl of Clancarty.  Their reason for so doing was, that their lands of Dunkerron were usurped by Henry, Lord Shelbourne, "who got a patent for lands of the O'Sullivan More, in 1696, his widow, Mary, receiving jointure of part thereof."

    Teigue Sullevane sought a freehold near Killarney, forfeited by Sir Nicholas Browne, but his petition was not granted.  William Sullevane claimed, and was allowed a freehold in Kerry lands, forfeited by Sir Valentine Browne, and Daniel Sullevane and Henrietta, his wife, for themselves and their children, petitioned (but were dismist) for freehold, and remainder in the counties of Wicklow, Kildare, and Kilkenny -- the confiscations of Sir Edward Scott.

    In 1642, Owen O'Sullivan married Mary, daughter of Colonel Owen McSweeney, by whom he had a son Philip, attainted like himself by the Cromwellians.  He was afterwards a Major in King James' army, and was killed in a duel in France.  He had been married to Joanna, daughter of Daniel McCarthy, of Killowen, by a daughter of McCarthy Reagh, of Carbery.  His wife's sister afterwards married Dermod, eldest son of O'Sullivan More, Lord of Dunkerron.  The son of this Dermot O'Sullivan More was in 1745 the companion of Prince Charles Edward, on the occasion of his expedition into Scotland, and the partner of his trials and misfortunes in that country.

    A son of Philip, mentioned above, the Major in King James' army, and born in 1692, passed to America in 1723, and settled in Mayne.  He married Margery Browne, and had five sons (1) Benjamin, lost at sea; (2) Daniel, from privations in prison during the American War; (3) John, who was born in 1740, was a member of the first Congress of America in 1774, at Philadelphia.  In the Spring of 1776, he succeeded General Thomas, as Commander of the American Army in Canada.  He was Governor of New Hampshire in 1786, 1787 and 1789, and was appointed Judge of the Federal Court by Washington, which office he held to his death, in 1796, at the age of 105 years.  The 4th son was named James, and the 5th Eben, an officer in the American Army.  The "Life and Times of James" has been written by his grandson, Thomas A. Amory, of Boston.  This James died Governor of Massachussets in the year 1818.
    (Dalton, vol. i., p. 269, and History of Muckross Abbey, chap. xiii.)

  21. The following is the very edifying will of the above-mentioned Florence O'Sullivan, by which, as already given (note 14), he leaves all his property and goods for charitable purposes, and especially for bourses in Louvain.

    Fundatio R. D. Florentii Sullivane S, Th. Dotoris Reg., isignis Eccl. Coll. S. Jacobi, Lov. Can. et Decani, et Collegii Pastoralis Hyberniae Præsidis, Obiit 1731.

    Tenor Testamenti:--

    In nomine Domini, Amen.  Ego Forentius Sullivane Presbyter, Sacrae Theologæ Doctor Regius, insignis Ecclesiae Collegiatæ Sancti Jacobi Canonicus et Decanus, &c. Sciens mortem esse certam, horam autem illius incertam et nolens intestatus mori, declaro mcam ultimam voluntatem contineri sequentibus articlulis, revocans cum in finem omnia Testamenta ante hac a me condita.

    Imprimis, animam commendo Omnipotenti Deo per Passionem ac Merita Redemptoris ac Salvatoris Nostri Jesu Christi per Patrocinium ac Merita Intemerata Christi Matris Beatæ Mariæ Virginis et Sanctorum Omnium.  Corpus meum si Lovanii vita Fungar sepeliri volo in Ecclesia Collegiata Sancti Jacobi sine pompa ad discretionem meorum Executorum.  Solutis Debitis meis Residuum Bonorum mihi a largitore Deo Optimo Maximo Concessorum impendi volo in Piam Fundationem in Universitate Lovaniensi ad quam præferentiam habebunt mei consanguinei usque ad tertium consanguinitatis inclusive, quo extincto, præferentiam habebunt oriundi ex Familia Sullivane in Comitatu Kirriensi, post hos oriundi ex familia MacCarti in eodem Comitatu, post hos Kirrienses, post Kirrienses Casselenses et deinde Ultonienses, et omnes (exceptis consanguineis usque ad quartum gradum inclusive, qui studere poterunt juri vel medicinae et Philosophiae), tenebunter ad Statum Ecclesiasticum, et ad Missionem Hyberniæ, et esse promoti ante medium in Artibus.

    Libros meos et supellectilem volo vendi in augmentationem Fundationis.

    Volo ut ex mea Fundatione solvantur annue quatuor floreni qui serviunt pro missa anniversaria pro requie animae meæ quotannis legenda in Collegio Hybernico ex quibus Celebrans habebit octo Stuferos, Reliquum destribuetur inter Studiosos Collegii præsentes in Missa, Comprehenso etiam Celebrante et Famulo.

    Famul meo moderno nomine Debatti Lego viginti et unum Florenos Semel, et unum Librum judicio Executorum.  Totidem lego ancillæ.

    This was authenticated by the Registrar of Deeds and Testaments, in the office of the "General Archives" of Belgium.  The Most Reverend Doctor Coffey, Bishop of Kerry, has the authenticated copy of this will.  The original is to be found in the "Archives Generales du Royaume De la Belgique," No. 2,148, D'Linventaire provisoire de fonds de l'ancienne Université de Louvaine, fo. 219vo.

  22. In 1604 Dermot, Daniel, and Cnogher O'Sullivan, sons of Donal O'Sullivan More, surrendered all their lands and chiefries in Kerry, and obtained a regrant in fee for them from the Crown.

    In 1605, at the Royal instance, a similar surrender and regrant was made of the lands of O'Sullivan More, and giving him in lieu of the Headship of his Sept the title of Baron.  Rolls. Temp. Jac. I. in Canc. Hib.

    He had afterwards and enlarged grant of various castles, lands, fisheries, duties, markets, courts, tolls, and chief rents, as formerly granted to his father, "Sir" Owen O'Sullivan (the rents having been payable to the Earl of Desmond), to hold same to him, the said Owen, in tail male; remainder to the right heirs of the said "Sir" Owen.

    In 1613, Daniel O'Sullivan and Stephen Rice, of Ballinraddel, represented the County of Kerry.

    In this year, 1613, Sir Thomas Roper, had a grant of parcels of the estates of Teigue McDaniel O'Swellivan, and of Owen McDonnell, McDonough O'Swellivan, late of Cahirdonellmore, both slain in rebellion.

    In 1632, The Lord President of Munster addressed the following letter to the Lord Justices on the precautions to be taken against the Algerian Pirates, who infested the coasts of the Bay of Kenmare.-- "Mr. Daniel Sullivan has a house of reasonable strength at Berehaven, and takes upon him to defend it and Ballygobbin; he promised to erect five beacons upon the Dorseys, and four upon the great island.  I have directed O'Sullivan More, who lives on the river of Kenmare, to take warning from the beacon erected on the promontory over the Dorseys, and by one of his own, to assemble his tenants and servants at his strong and defensible castle; but, I think this caution needless, as the inhabitants on both sides of that river are but few, till as far up as Glaneraught, where the pirates dare not venture."

  23. In the Declaration of Royal Gratitude, in the Act of Settlement, we have the name of Captain Dermot O'Sullivan, of Kilmolœ, and of Lieutenant O'Sullivan, of Fermoyle.

    Of these outlawed in 1691, were:-- MacDonnell Soolivan of Letton, and Florence Sullivan of Modden, in the County Kerry.

    We are sorry we cannot find anything authentic of the life and works of the celebrated Kerry Poet, Owen Rua O'Sullivan.  He is buried in Muckross Abbey, in the tomb of the O'Sullivans, Mentobgies, at the head of McCarthy More's (now The O'Donoghue's) vault.  We give a few words from one of his last songs, which can be named his hymn of repentance, for a life, we dread, neither exemplary nor Christian:--

    Irish script
    My soul ! how grief's arrow
    Hath fixed in my marrow !
    O'er that cold coffin narrow,
                I'll weep evermore.
    By the hand of my father !
    This moment I'd rather
    From the grave thee to gather,
    Than gold's yellow store.
    All feasts I'll give o'er ;
    I'm stricken and frore--
    O ! grave of Kilmather,
    Be my roof-tree and floor.

  24. In the curious old Pastoral of Murrough O'Connor (an. 1719), which we have given in the History of the O'Connors (see History of Muckross Abbey, chap. xix.), we have a very graphic account of the cruel treatment which Owen O'Sullivan, of Rhincarrah, last head of this Sept of the O'Sullivans, of Iveragh, suffered at the hands of a certain Orangeman, named Captain Magee.  Owen laments his bitter fate, in being deprived of his lands, and the headship of his Sept, by this ruthless soldier, in the words of Virgil's Mœlibeous, whose property was also, 1700 years previously, handed over to the soldiers of Augustus.


    My dearest Murrough, I am glad to find
    So much content and pleasure in your mind.
    But, I, poor Owen, grieve, lament and moan,
    You see, I'm packing up and must be gone.
    My bended shoulders with my burden bow,
    and I can hardly drive this limping cow,
    Not long ago, which gave me cause to fret,
    A sea-hog at the Skallogs (Skelligs) broke my net.
    The sea did not up to Rhincarrah flow,
    Mangerton's top was black and wanted snow,
    With mournful song, lamenting, the Bantee
    Fortold the ruin of my house and me.

    Like our poor evicted tenants of the present day, he looks around to know where he can find a home for himself and family; and here we see the only means of subsistence open to our forefathers, who had lost all for their love of faith and fatherland in the last century.


    But I must quit my dear Iv'ragh and roam
    The world about to find another home.
    To Paris go with satchel cramm'd with books,*
    With empty pockets and hungry looks.
    Or else to Dublin to Tim Sullivan,
    To be a drawer or a waiting-man.
    Or else, perhaps, some favourable chance,
    By box and dice my fortune may advance.
    At the groom porters could I find a friend,
    That would, poor Owen, kindly recommend.

    But shall this foreign Captain force from me
    My house and land, my river and fishery?
    Was it for him, I those improvements made?
    Must his long sword turn out my lab'ring spade?
    Adieu, my dear abode.
    I shall no more with Brogan Boan Scribiugh climb
    Steep Mullaghbert,** enthroned on top sublime,
    Head of my clan, determine every case,
    To make my vassals live at home in peace,
    To teach them justice, a much cheaper way,
    Keep them from lawyer's fees, and courts delay.

    Thrice happy you, who live at your ease,
    Have nought to do, but see your cattle graze.
    Speak Latin to the stranger passing by,
    And on a shambrog bank reclining lye.
    Or on the grassy sod "cut points" to play
    Backgammon†† and delude the livelong day.
    When night comes on to pleasing resting go,
    Lull'd by the soft cronan or sweet speck show.
    When Kircha Shula strains her warbling throat,
    In timeful hum and sleeps upon the note.

    Then Murrough invites Owen to enjoy his hospitality for the night, and gives us an insight into the life led by our forefathers, who had lost all for their Faith:


    But stay, dear Owen, cosher here this night;
    Behold the rooks have now begun their flight,
    And to their nests in winged troops repair,
    They fly in haste, and shew that night is near.
    The sheep and lambkins all around us bleat;
    The sun's just down, to travel is too late.
    Slacaan and Scallops shall upon my board,
    Fit entertainment for a Kerry Lord.
    In egg-shells then we'll take our parting cup,
    Lye down on rushes with the sun yet up.

    *  "'Tis a Kerry shift to go to Paris when reduced."  It was the America of that day.  In Brittany, however, in 1605, the Irish emigrant was treated as a vagabond, and hunted and deported at the public expense. -- Eccl. Record, Ap. 1897, p. 317.

      A Kerry man who keeps the London Tavern (Dublin).  Notes to Ed. 1719.

      Brogan Boan, a big brog or shoe, with scalloped heel, which no one but a gentleman was allowed to wear.

    **  Mullaghbert, "Hill of Reference," where the head of the Clan sitting every Sunday and Holiday decided all controversies, literally-- "Bare spot of arbitration," that is "a big stone on which to sit in judgment."  (Notes from the original copy printed by James Carson, Coghill's Court, Dame Street, opposite to the Castle Market, 1719; and by E. Jones, Clarendon Street, Dublin, 1739.)

    ††  Backgammon-- Kerrymen in those days were so fond of cards that they had them always about them.  In a MS. of T.C. I, 3, p. II, we find that, "The inhabitants of the County (Kerry), I mean those of them that are downright Irish, are remarkable beyond the other parts of Ireland for gaiming, speaking of Latin, and inclination to philosophy and disputes therein.  When they can get no one to game with them you shall find them alone with a booke of Aristotle's, or some of his Commentator's Logick which they read very diligently, till they are able to pour out nonsensical words a whole day about universalia, a parte rei, ens, rationes, and such like stuff.  When they have sown their summer corn in the spring, many families will take a vagary of going into Spain, and there spend the summer in begging and wandering up and down among the northern side of that kingdom.  Those that are loath to be called the inferior sort, are generally very litigious, and they will go to law about the least trifle, and this is the reason (or perhaps the consequence) of this county's abounding more than ordinary with men that are (as they term it) 'towards the law.'"

  25. In 1598, Owen O'Sullivan, who built Dunkerron Castle, had four brothers-- Dermot, married to a daughter of Owen McCarthy Reagh; Boghe, married to a daughter of O'Donovan; Conor, married to a daughter of the Knight of Glynn; Donogh, married to a daughter of O'Leary (widow of the McGillicuddy).  He had two sisters, married to O'Sullivan Beara and the Knight of Kerry.

    In a house attached to Dunkerron Castle was a chimney-piece with a carved inscription which shows the unfailing love of the family for the Mother of God: "Maria Deo Gratias.  This work was made 11th April, 1596, by Owen O'Sullivan and Sily [Giles] Nig [h] Donogh MacCarthy Reagh."

    Carved inscription

    There are also some graceful figures supposed to be the likenesses of O'Sullivan More and his lady, in Irish costume.  The lady is dressed very modestly in a long close-fitting gown, which covers her feet, but her head-dress is something "stunning."-- Kilkenny Journal, Mar. 1859, p. 201.  See note 30.

    Carved stone

    Carved stone

    Coat of arms on carved stone

    The following is an "Errata" note from a later piece of this article:

    "Mr. Bigger, M.R.I.A., and Editor of the Ulster Journal of Archæology, has very kindly let us know that the inscription and coat of arms on the stone in the ruins of Dunkerron Castle, given (here), is at present over an old well, and not in the ruins, as it was in the middle of this century."

    "One Eugenius O'Sullivan More is said to have been created by Queen Elizabeth Lord Baron of Bunvawer about the beginnin of her reign, but, though his issue lawfully begotton do continue to this day they will not assume the title."  Extract from MSS. account of Kerry in T.C.D.  He was most probably this Owen O'Sullivan More of the time of Aileen McCarthy's marriage with Florence McCarthy, mentioned by Sir William Herbert, Calendar State Papers, 1588, p. 538.

    We give here the will of this Owen's son, who was called Donal O'Sullivan More.  It is a very edifying document and a model of the good sentiments which ought to animate a husband and father of family when preparing his last dispositions for his wife and children.  Here we do not see the husband leaving his wife -- who ought to be the dearest object to him on earth -- to the tender mercies of his heirs; nor his daughters in the power of their brother.  Nothing can be more cruel or more unjust than the conduct of some husbands towards their good and devoted wives at this final moment, especially when these partners of their lives have solely lived for the happiness and health of those cold-hearted, ungrateful men.  This is an unpardonable crime before God and man, and hence we are delighted to see this good O'Sullivan More safeguarding his noble lady in such sort that she cannot be injured by son or relative, or deprived of her just rights while she lives.  We would say to the men of money and means who read this, "Go and do likewise": otherwise you will have to render a terrible account to the just Judge, who will mete out to you as you have measured to that one, who by divine and human law, ought to be the nearest and dearest to you on earth.


                        Dated 14th Nov. 1632.

    In Dei no', i'e, Amen.  In the name of God, Amen.

    I Daniel O'Sullivans, also O'Sullivan More, of Dunkieran in the County of Kerry, Esq., being att this Instante of p[e]rfect witt and memorie, sickley in body, haveing God before mine Eyes, and being sure that death is certaine and the houre thereof uncertaine, do hereby make my last will and Testament, in Manner and forme as hereafter followeth:  ffirst, I commend my Soule to the Hollie Trinitie and all the Scts [Saints] in Heaven.  My body to be interred and buried in the Abbey of Irrelagh [Mukross Abbey], in my predecesrors' tombe.  Secundarily, I appointe and constitute Owen O'Sullivane, my eldest sonne, to be my true and lawfull heir, to whome I leave all my rents, lands, and Living within the Comit' [county] of Kiery.  Thirdly, I leave to my wife Juan [Johanna] Fitz Morish, Cuillinyhe, contayning two plowlands, Ardentuirke contayning one ploughland, Kuilenagh, one plowland, Clueagh one plowland, Rossdoghin one plowland, with all their app'tenances whatsoever, and alsoe I bequeath and leave to my said wife certaine glinds and pastures, vidt;-- Gleanmicky, Sronohiry, Cluon, the one-half of Bohishal, all w'ch lands shall stand to the use and behoofe of my said wife, for tearme of her natural life.  And I doe also give full power, and authoritie, to my said wife, to ingadg and mortgage some three ploughlands of the premisses, as shee shall think fitt, for three hundred pounds [i.e., about £3,000 of our money] and this to bestowe, and give to any of her sonne, as to her shall seeme meet.  Fourthly, I leave and bequeath unto my daughter Syly for her maintenance and towards her p[re]ferment three hundred pounds ster', besides what chattle and mony shee hath in hands herself.  To my daughter Ellen, tow'rds her p[re]ferment I leave one hundred and seventie pounds, besides what the country will affoord her.  And to Mary, my youngest daughter, the some of one hundred and thirty pounds ster', and what the country will affoord her."  (This was a very large sum, for all the Freeholders were obliged to give a certain amount on the marriage of each of the daughters, as we see in MacCarthy More's revenue.)  "And untill these severall sumes be paied to them by my heire, each of them is to have according to . . an hundred yearly for theire Maintenance.  Provided that the said daughters shall be directed by my sonne and heire, my wife and my deerest friends concerning theire prefermt, and marriage, otherwise to allow them noe portion.  Fifthly my said wife is to have and enjoy all the chattle and Corne that I am possest of att this instante.  Lastly after the expirac'on of William ny hinsey [Hennessy's] his lease, past to Edmond McHue, of the two plowlands of Ardkintuirke and Cladagh, I leave here, by my last Will and Testam't, to the said Edmond, a lease of seven yeares, paiing thereout yearly neine points.
                        DANIEL O'SULLIVAN MORE.

    Being p[rese]nte when th[e] above will and testament was made, besides Ors. [others] wee whose names doe followe:--
    John ffyeld [Field].
    Dermod Leynne,
    Melaghlen O'Leyne,
    Patricke Truante [Trant].

    McGillicuddy Papers, pp. 17 and 18.

    When family differences arose-- as they usually do when the son is left guardian and executor for his sisters-- the case was left to arbitration.  How well would it be for families if they would observe the following wise arrangement in such cases:-- "This Indenture witnesseth that the said Owen (O'Sullivan More), Joane (his mother), Siles (or Syly), Ellen and Mary (sisters), to avoyde all unnatural strife, suite, or contention w'ch heretofore did arise, or hereafter might arise between them, have respectivelie, with their mutual assent and consent, referred and submitted themselves and do by these p'nts (presents) reffer and submit themselves to the order, award, doome and judmt (jugement) of James Knowde, Esq. (he was one of the officers of Sir James Roper, Baron of Bantry, and Constable of Castlemaine), Donell Fearys (Ferris), Esq., Edmond Hussey, Gent., Donel O'Sullevane, Gent, and Dermot Leyne, Gent . .

    Signed, sealed and delivered in ye (the) presence of us--

      Mor. Moore
    Donell O'Sullivane
    Owen O'Sullivane, fz der
    Edmond M'Swyny
    Char. Sughrue.
    Owen Sulivane
    Ja. Knowde.

    The award, as could be expected, was entirely in favour of the mother and sisters.  See McGillicuddy Papers, pp 30, 31.  The referees, however strictly enforce the wish of the testator as regards the daughters' marriage.  "And we doe further order and decree that the said three sisters, nor any, nor neither of them (sic) shall espouse themselves, or be married without the consent and good-likeing of us, the arbitrators, or some fower, three, or towe of us (yf soe many of use shall survive at such tymes of espousall marriage-- Or if not then to have the consent of towe (two) of her nearest kindred by or the mother's syde of the house and lineage of Lixnawe."  This seems to us an admirable injunction, especially where there was a question of young Princesses, who knew not how to read or write.  But even if they did, and knew all the "isms" or ologies of the "Blue stocking," or "New woman" of our day, it is worthy of the mind of a Hussey-- who, we believe, suggested this injunction-- to preserve those young ladies from themselves and the glamour of their name and fortune.

    The last of this branch of the O'Sullivans More died at Tomies, according to Sir Ross O'Connell, who is assuredly the best authority on this matter, in 1762, and was buried in Muckross Abbey.  The story Sir Ross relates about the destruction of so many MSS. is painful in the extreme to an antiquarian.  See Last Col. of the Irish Brighade., vol I, p. 53.

    The following is a very authentic account of the famous outlaw of Glenflesk, who was an O'Sullivan of the Kenmare or Cappanacus branch.


    High on the face of the precipitous cliffs, near the lake of Foiladaowne, is shown to this day Name in Irish Script (Owen's bed), a cave, bearing signs in its recess of having been once enlarged and fitted up for a habitation.  A few beech, holly, and hazel trees shade the entrance, and the floor is covered with heath and fern.  Owen's fire-place, table, and stool are pointed out in the projection and recess of the rock.  The cave is open at two sides, one eastward, overlooks a cliff of fearful depth, the other commanding a narrow ledge, against which the outlaw placed a ladder when he desired to descend or ascend from his hiding place.  The O'Reardons who were relatives of the outlaw, and who were also "Tories," near Macroom, were induced by Col. Hedges to betray O'Sullivan's hiding-place and to aid in arresting him.  The "Tory" of Glenflesk was invited to spend a night with the Reardons in the year 1710, in Ballyvourney.  While O'Sullivan was sitting unarmed by their fireside, in the evening, his treacherous hosts fell upon him, but as Col. Hedges says in his letter to the Castle: "Owen struggled hard and would give no quarter, and put Davy (O'Reardon) hard to it, giving him four slight wounds, but Dan Reardon came to his assistance and knocked Owen down with a pike, and Reilly, the other Rapp, shot him with a brace of ball and then they cut off his head."  Thus ended one of the last of the O'Sullivan chieftains of Kilgarvan and Kenmare.  Reardon was ever after called Name in Irish Script or "Reardon of the head."  The most painful phase of this foul murder is that at the very time Reardon committed the crime, the outlaw's father was returning from Dublin with an unconditional and free pardon for his son: hence the murderer did not receive "the wages of his iniquity."  See Kerry Records, p. 132, and History of Muckross Abbey, chap. viii.

  26. The O'Sullivan name in 1890 held the third place in all Ireland in order of numerical strength, having only (1) Murphy and (2) Kelly before it.  The MacCarthy name holds only the thirteenth place.  The estimated population of the O'Sullivans at that date, in Ireland, was 43,000, and the MacCarthys, 22,300; whilst the Ryans were 32,000, the Walshes, 41,700, and the O'Connors, 31,200.  The number of births in families bearing the name O'Sullivan, in 1890, was the highest of any name in Cork (418) or Kerry (349).  Murphy came next in Cork (390), and Connors in Kerry (188).  Ryan heads the list in Limerick and Tipperary, and Brennan in Kilkenny.

  27. At this time O'Neill was master of the greatest part of Ireland; but Owen O'Sullivan was more far-seeing than the Leader of the North.  This young Owen, son of Sir Owen, and his brothers were on the side of the English at the Seige of Dunboy as they laid claim to the Lordship of Beara.  Young Owen was Lord of Bantry in 1615.  He died in 1617.  He was brother-in-law of Sir Cormac MacCarthy of Muscry (Muskerry), of Sir Nicholas Browne, ancestor of the Earl of Kenmare, and of O'Sullivan More.  Carew says of the Seige of Dunboy that "so obstinate and resolved a defence had not been seen in the kingdom" (see "Seige of Dunboy," History of Muckross Abbey, chap. xi., No. 1).

  28. Of this family of Beara was the following illustrious member of the Franciscan Order who was buried at Kilcrea --


    Father Thaddeus O'Sullivan was a gifted religious of the monastery of Kilcrea, in Cork.  His powers as a preacher won him fame in all parts of Ireland.  He followed the Irish troops of the Earl of Desmond, and his eloquent exhortations not only kept alive the Faith in the souls of those who heard him, but prevented many a bloody deed in those disastrous times.  The toil, however, and hardships he had to endure in this war broke down his constitution in a short time, and brought on a premature death.  The soldiers, who loved him tenderly, would fain convey his corpse to the Monastery of Kilcrea.  This, however, was a dangerous undertaking; for at that time all Munster was in the hands of the English troops, and no one, under pain of death, dared to appear abroad in daylight.  At length some soldiers who were thoroughly acquainted with the bye-paths placed the corpse upon a horse, and set out after nightfall for the monastery; but losing their way in the darkness, they were about to retrace their steps when one of the party said: "Let us leave the horse to himself, and he will certainly carry the corpse to the monastery."  Adopting this suggestion they followed the horse all that night, and next morning they found themselves within the precincts of the monastery, where the remains of Father O'Sullivan were interred in the cloister, at the door of the chapter-room, December, 1597.  He was the bosom friend of Dr. Craghe, Bishop of Cork, who consulted him on all matters of importance, and was guided by his counsels.  A letter from Cecil to Carew about this illustrious Bishop of Cork, and Confessor of the Faith, is assuredly one of the most infamous productions in the correspondence of that wicked and bloodthirsty statesman.  Cecil plainly asks Carew, in this letter, to make use of the Baron of Cahir, a Catholic, to deliver up this good Bishop to the tender mercies of Elizabeth; and he assures him that this diabolical act will make the Baron of Cahir very pleasing to the Queen; as nothing could please her better than that some of the principal knaves of name be hanged.  We could scarcely imagine such inhuman depravity on the part of Cecil and Elizabeth, if we had not this Carew State Paper, in Cecil's own handwriting to prove it:

    CECIL TO CAREW, 1600.

    "You cannot please the Queen better than that some of the principal knaves of name be hanged.  It is said that Cahir can deliver Dr. Craghe when he list: It wear well tryed to impress yt upon him, not as the doer, but underhand; for he can doe yt [it] with a wett finger, and it will make him verre consyllable," that is, pleasing to Elizabeth (see Life of Dr. Creagh Renehan, p. 9; O'Reilly, p. 116, and Analecta by Dr. Moran, p. xlvi. and 393, seq.).

    This Thaddeus O'Sullivan is very probably the same whom we find at A.D. 1592, in the Calendar State Papers, where he is called Sir Teige O'Swyllevan.  "There is one Sir Teige Owyllevan, and earnest preacher of Popery, preaching from house to house in Waterford, Clonmel, Fethard, and in the country about the towns."

    At the year 1587, of the Calendar State Papers, p. 363, there is a very valuable note on the division of lands among the O'Sullivans of Beara and Bantry:-- "The proper inheritance of land belonging to the O'Sullivans is 15 teen quarters, every quarter containing three plough lands.  The one half whereof was, by ancient custom, allotted to the O'Sullivan, lord of the country for the time being.  The other half to be divided and distributed among the worthiest and the best of the name, as cousins and kinsmen to the lord, as a portion to live upon, viz.:-- To the tanist the best part of the said one half, which is two quarters, every quarter containing three plough lands; to the second eldest next the tanist, which is Donel O'Sullivan [the celebrated Donal Cam], the plaintiff there is allotted of the said one half six plough lands, and so the rest to be divided among the other kinsmen.  But it is to be understanded that this order was in some times altered, and so ought to be according [to] the custom of the country, that is according [to] diminution or increase of the said name of the Sullivans; which alteration should be when the name should augment, then every one's portion were diminished to give living to the new comer; and if the name were dimished, then the portion of the deceased to be divided among the out-living.  But the lord's portion, which is the first half, did never alter, but continues still to O'Sullivan for the time being.  The lord hath also four quarters of land belonging to his manor of Foyd, and this, with half the 15 teen quarters aforesaid, is all the land the lord hath in this own possession howbeit he is chief lord of all the country.  There are 20 quarters more in the country which is the lord's too, but they be allotted to other cousins and kinsmen, as their shares of old ancient custom to live upon, paying his rents to the lord, which is but little worth now-a-days, as the issues descended of Fyngu Duff O'Sullivan, the issues descended of the son of Lawrence O'Sullivan, the issues descended of Dwling O'Sullivan, the issues descending of the son of McBwogy [Boethuis] O'Sullivan, the issues descended of the son of Donnell O'Sullivan, the issues descended of the son of Teig O'Sullivan, and such like, and every one of them hath his share thereof, paying his rent to the lord for the time being, and at the lord's pleasure he may take the lands out of their hands, if they had not paid the rent, which in old time was the cessing of his men of war, as gallowglasses, kerne, horsemen, and such like, besides to pay all his charges whensoever he would come out of his country to any town or city, to sessions, terms, service of his prince, and such like, etc.

    There is also belonging to O'Sullivan two principal castles, as his chief manors or dwelling, in Beare and Bantry.  In Beare, the chief manor of Dunoye, alias Bearehaven Castle, of which he carrieth his name of O'Sullivan Beare.  In Bantry, the manor of Foyd, and another castle, builded by Sir Owen's own father, called Carrigin Assygi, the which three remaineth in the possession of the said Sir Owen.  There is also a fourth castle, called Ardea, which is the manor or house allotted for the tanist for the time being, and is now in the possession of Philip O'Sullivan [father of Don Philip, the historian], tanist and brother to Sir Owen; but there was never seen a castle allotted to any other of the name.

    The standing rent due to O'Sullivan out or upon his country is but £40, and that itself was never allotted to the lady for the time being towards her idle expenses [pin-money], so, as the country being no good farm land, but all valleys, cragged rocks and hills, can yield not great commodity, and, therefore, the O'Sullivan for the time being liveth only by the sea, and the commodity thereof as his fishing, his wrecks and such like, etc.  And for the fishing it is a thing uncertain, for some years, if fishing do fall upon the coast, then Dunboye is worth much; if fishing fail it cannot yield profit.

    For the ships and boats, the rents of them is but as the lord, and they can agree, according as the fishing do continue all the season of the year, or fail, as sometimes it doth fail within a month, etc.  [Does not this look like a correspondence of yesterday, to a Cork paper from Bantry Bay?]

    The reason wherefore there is no reservation of rents upon those that hold the said land is because they were to pay everything the lord lacked from time to time, as debts, building of a house or castle, or marrying his daughter, or to supply the wants of his house, and such like, etc.  June 8, 1587."

    At No. 10 of this Note there is an abstract of Sir Owen O'Sullivan's proofs affirming the succession of tanist, and the tanist's portion in Beare and Bantry (p. 6).  June 8, 1587.

    No. 11.-- Petition of Donel O'Sullivan to the Lord Treasurer against the practices of his uncle, Sir Owen O'Sullivan, to detain his lands (p. 1).  See also Nos. 12 and 13, and above all the interesting papers at p. 1.

    No. 13 (i.)-- Collection of depositions touching the seizin of Donnel O'Sullivan's ancestors of Dunboy, and the rest, in the life of their uncles, claiming by Irish custom (p. 1).

    No. 13 (ii.)-- Collection of such witnesses as Sir Owen produced touching the possession of persons in the collateral line (p. 1).  See also No. 14 for the amount allowed Donal O'Sullivan for his maintenance, "and a device to bring the land to inheritance by descent" (p. 1).

    No. 15.-- Plot of O'Sullivan's country of Bearehaven, and the part adjoining, with a view of Beare Castle, alias Dunboy.

  29. The author runs riot here with chronology.  The attack on Bunratti Castle took place in the Cromwellian wars.  It was attacked by Lord Muskerry, and capitulated after two days' defence, on the 13th June, 1646; whereas, the famous "retreat" of Donal Cam took place after the destruction of Dunboy, in 1602.  This last -- of one of our best known historical facts -- is carefully recorded by all our historians, as the defence of the castle by MacGeoghegan, and the "retreat" of Donal Cam to O'Rourke's country are among the most heroic acts of bravery we have of ancient or modern warfare.  See Cath. Hiber. Compend., tom. 3, lib. 7.  It is a painful record, for our country, however, that Donal Cam was conquered by Irishmen and not by the English, as there were only 500 English in the army that besieged and destroyed his Castle of Dunboy, whilst their were 3,500 Irish according to Don Philip O'Sullivan.  Idem. cap. ii., fol. 182-- and lib 7, cap. iii., fol. 183.  See a full account of this extraordinary man and his melancholy death, in History of Muckross Abbey, chap. xi, Nos. i., ii. and chap. xii. and xiii.  As Don Philip pathetically observes, Donal Cam was slain between two good actions.  "He left his prayers to stop a strife"-- as he had then his rosary in his hands.  He hastened to the scene to calm his friends and retainers, when he received his death wound from his servant John Bathe.  Assuredly, there is no reason to suppose Bathe-- who was an Englishman, -- was employed by any "other power" in what he committed.  There is not a shadow of foundation of this assertion of our author.  The great chief's remains were carried into the church of the Dominicans-- where he had been a few moments before reciting his Rosary-- and by the care of the Prior, the Rev. Dominicus Didacus Brocher, they were honourably interred next day, "after stately obsequies, attended by the leading Spanish nobility, splendid Knights and Royal Counsellors."  Don Philip's Hist., p. 339.  Donal Cam was only 57 when he was thus murdered, in an insane broil of his own people.  "He was of a comely aspect, combining in his person a manly stature, an elegent bearing, and a handsome face.  He was verging on venerable old age."  This of course, was not from years but from the trials and sufferings undergone in Ireland.  "He used to hear two masses every day; he prayed with extreme devotion, and frequently received the most Holy Sacrament in atonement for his sins."  A pension of 300 pieces of Spanish gold was paid to him every month.  He received the Spanish Order of the Knights of S. Jago, which was also conferred on his two sons, who entered the Spanish service, and died without offspring.


    We give the following translation of the beautiful Latin poem of Philip O'Sullivan on the sufferings of his family for their faith and their country.  We have omitted the first part, as it contains nothing historically interesting to our readers.  This translation, which is a very good version of the poem, gives the author's sentiments in fairly flowing verse.  We do not know the author.  It was evidently printed fifty years ago or more, if we are to judge from the paper and type then used in Kerry.  Perhaps one of our readers has heard the name of the translator.

    Philip O'Sullivan is one of the noblest characters we find in Irish history, and, the one who has done more, as a layman, to illustrate the history of Catholic Ireland and her sufferings for the Faith, than any other Irishman at home or abroad during the 17th century-- of course, we except the Four Masters and the Franciscans of the College of St. Antony, Louvain, as well as Der Burgo's learned work.  Philip's father, Dermod O'Sullivan, was the brother of the celebrated Donal Cam, and his companion in his wars and retreat to the North, as we have already related in the History of the Fall of Dunboy.  See History of Muckross Abbey, chap. xi. 1, 2, 3, and chap. xii. xiii. etc.  His mother was daughter of Donal MacSweeny.  Her three brothers, Eugene, Edmund and Maurice MacSweeny, together with Dermod O'Sullivan, father of our author, were the first who rose at the call of the chivalrous FitzMaurice, Lord of Lixnaw, in 1569.  Again, when FitzMaurice landed in Ireland from Spain in 1579, the MacSweenys and Dermod O'Sullivan enrolled themselves under John FitzGerald, brother to the Earl of Desmond, and shared all the dangers of the contest to its close.  Giollaisa and Bernard MacSweeny were siezed and executed.  Their brother, Rory, fled with the wreck of the Desmond army to the Chieftains of North Connaught.

    Joanna MacSweeny gave birth to seventeen children, of whom thirteen died before the fall of Dunboy; the other four were involved in the fate of Dermod, their father, as already related.  Don Philip and several other noble youths were sent to Spain with the son and heir of Donal Cam, Prince of Beara.  They sailed from Castlehaven in February, 1602, about 10 months after Red Hugh O'Donnell had sailed from the same port.  They landed at Corunna, and were kindly received by the Marquis De Caracena, who placed Don Philip under the care of an Irish Priest, Rev. Patrick Sinnot, evidently a Wexford man, who took charge of his education.  Don Philip was very probably born in Dursey Island, where his father built a castle, and found a refuge after the wreck of the Desmond army.  He describes himself a boy in 1602.

    In this poem, Philip O'Sullivan paints in painful, but most pathetic words, the ruin of all his family, on account of their love of Faith and Fatherland.  But his sentiments are so full of piety and submission to the Divine Will, that they read like the words of a Father of the Church, or a St. Laurence in his martyrdom, rather than the expressions of a young sailor who is roughing it, in the hard life of a marine of those days.  He wrote besides the Historiæ Catholicæ Hiberniæ Compendium, the "Lives of St. Kyran of Laiger, St. Alban, St. Aille, St. Declan, and St. Mochudda."  None of these have been published, except the translation of an Irish life of St. Mochudda, which he gave to "Bollandus"; nor could Colgan find where the MSS. were deposited.  He wrote also an answer to Usher's fierce attack on his history, but we are obliged to say that this was unworthy of him, if we can judge by the summary given in Doctor Kelly's learned, "Preface" to the Historiæ Cath. Comp. (Maynooth Ed.), from which we have taken this notice.  The date or place of his death is unknown.  Smith, in his History of Cork, says he died a Franciscan monk of Kilcrea, but there seems no foundation for this assertion.


    Of ancient stem from many a royal line,
       Offspring of Dermot, noble Prince of Beare,
    His mother of that well-known Geraldine,
       Ellinor, fair daughter of the great Kildare;
    Alone, or with other cities renowned in war,
       Our father triumphed both on sea and shore.

    Of many a well-contested field of fame,
       Where blood flowed free to loose the tyrant's hold;
    With many a garland Dermot wreathed his name,
       In council wise, in action prompt and bold;
    His country's cause with Desmond long sustained,
       Nor left his own great chief while life remained.

    The shores of Shannon gazed with pleased content
       As on he hastened down its stream to fight;
    Its hills rejoicing, all their echoes lent,
       When twice seven vessels yielded to his might;
    Scaling the walls of Youghal, its troops recoil,
       He stormed the city, but refused the spoil.

    The smiling fields where Connaught's heroes fought
       In times of yore, in later days of fame,
    Beheld his triumphs, and too dearly bought
       The blue Lough Foyle; where, to his country's shame,
    The sons of Nial their precious birthright sold
       To tampering hirelings for land and gold.

    All that he did for praise I need not tell,
       Much is recorded on the historic page.
    Whatever his to do, he did it well,
       From early manhood to extreme old age.
    His hundred years on earth in honour close,
       And wearied nature sought its last repose.

    When those we love to their last sleep are borne,
       Their memory compels the frequent tear;
    Mine the sad lot my parents both to mourn,
       Brothers by every tie of friendship dear,
    Through time's long corridors the plaintive tone
       Of man's bereavement mingles with my own.

    The clash of arms, the fervour in his blood
       My brother Daniel charmed from learned pursuits.
    He joined the fleet, which towering o'er the flood,
       The mastery in storm and war disputes,
    Swept through the billowy seas with sails wide spread,
       Crushing the hostile squadrons 'neath its tread.

    In battle with the Turks, as fortune turned,
       A bolt like that from heaven its errand sped,
    His spotless spirit to his God returned--
       His lifeless form the ocean monsters fed.
    The mould of manners, and of war the guide,
       In youth's first bloom, in all its fragrance died.

    Not Hector's self was more robust in form,
       No peril his intrepid breast could daunt;
    He scaled the lofty deck, or led the storm,
       Glad to achieve, but all too proud to vaunt.
    If those who die for duty never die,
       As Plautus tells us, he still lives on high.

    Ah! woe was mine, to lose him, yet before
       Time to my anguish some slight respite gave,
    My sister Helena sought her native shore
       Her husband, but to find a watery grave.
    Gentle in speech, of noble trait, devout,
       With her life had some promise, none without.

    The walled Corunna on Gallicia's shore
       Received his* bones that pious hands inter,
    But who for Christ his sacred armour wore,
       Bursts like his Master from the sepulchre.
    Earth may resume the body it has given--
       His memory lives on earth, his soul in heaven.

    When you died, too, my mother, life, what pain!
       You, too, were of the noblest, hero-born,
    Donald's ten brothers, valiant sons of Sweyne,
       Marshalled our clans and lead the hope forlorn;
    Donald and Margaret of Desmond's line,
       You loved and mourned your parents as I mine.

    We laid her gently by our father's side,
       The worthy wife of one both great and good,
    Wedlock's own glory, manhood's noblest pride,
       The choicest crown of virtuous womanhood.
    With them we buried all we knew of home,
       Earth's joys, or doubly blest the joy to come.

    Parents and brothers all beneath the sod,
       My sister Leonora still lives on;
    She early gave her blameless youth to God,
       Heaven's saintly rest by pious office won;
    Alone survivors of a happy host,
       Our chiefest luxury to lament the lost.

    But what can it profit to sigh or mourne?
       Tears cannot those we loved again recall;
    Inexorable Death assigns one bourne,
       For kings in purple, for the humblest thrall.
    Our transitory life glides fast away.
       No power avails its ceaseless course to stay.

    Then since its years flit by on rapid wing,
       Old men and youth yield to the doom ordained.
    That its approach no needless terror bring,
       Let us, to meet it, by our faith sustained,
    Remember that its mystic realms are shared
       By those that entered it not unprepared.

    Perhaps this lay the memories may save
       From dark oblivion what we cherished here;
    But they well knew the hand that took and gave,
       'Midst trials chastened, both with love and fear;
    May we not trust that through His merits they,
       In glory clad, have joined His bright array?

    What though our earthly bodies may decay
       Amidst the ocean, or beneath the clod,
    Each soul reclaiming will find its kindred clay
       Regenerate in presence of its God:
    He who from nothing made may well restore
       Giving His children life for evermore.

    * His father, Dermod O'Sullivan, who lived to the age of a hundred years, and was buried in the Franciscan Monastery of Corunna, in Gallicia.

    McSweeney, his mother's name.

  30. Calia or Celia or Julia.  This latter she is called in the genealogy of the Kenmare family.  The name in Irish is Sighile or Sheela.  It is not, however, of Irish origin.  (See Donovan's O'Duggan.)  Of this marriage, Sir Nicholas Browne writes in his "Discourse concerning the Province of Munster":-- "But I, being prevented of the Earl of Clancartie's daughter by Florence MacCartie, whome I would have married with her majesty's consent, who passed a patent to me of the country, and being spoiled by Donald Mac Cartie daily, and upon the death of Sir Valentine Browne, my father, being left secondless in the hearte of the wilde countrie of Desmond (these lands being the substance of my poor estate), for my better strength and to maintain my owne, I married with Sir Owen O'Sullivan's daughter, who before was contracted to Florence Mac Cartie-- wherein, he having falsified his faith, procured the said Owen and all his friends to be his bitter enemies, by which I grow able to raise companies for my defence, etc."  This Julia O'Sullivan was a very clever and good lady.  By her, the Browne family were led back to the Catholic Church, and after the death of her husband, all her children were married into Irish Catholic families.  We will give in next paper a monograph on this noble house of Kenmare.


    Near the head of the estuary in the bay of Kenmare (Hibernice Ceaun Mara), in the county of Kerry, stands all that remains of this once important fortalice.  Dunkerron Castle, a massive vaulted structure of the Tudor time, is on the site, as its name implies, of an ancient dun or fortress, constructed before the introduction of castles into Ireland.  In its present state it is a broken down but picturesque ruin, close by the shore within a small demesne, and surrounded by young plantations.  The southern side has almost disappeared, and has carried with it a part of the eastern and western walls.  The great archway, instead of being placed in the upper part of the building as is usual, formed a basement compartment, at about one-third of the whole elevation from the ground.  The greater part of this vault has been destroyed, and only a mere fragment remains.

    At a short distance from its south-east angle stands the high-pitched end wall or gable of a more recent mansion, belonging to the transition period, after the time of the first James.  It retains it capacious fire-places and mantel-pieces, but no other feature worthy of notice.  No doubt tradition and legend have been associated with its story, and reminiscences of its past days may still survive in the folk-lore of the neighbouring peasantry, for its ancient lords were of a stirring and daring race, who limited not their operations to the adjoining plains and mountains; their galleys traversed in search of adventure, glory, or traffic on the open seas which lay around, frequently visiting the ports of the Saxon and the Gall, or these farther to the south, remembered as the original home of their distant forefathers, as we see in the "Historia Catholica" of Philip O'Sullivan Beara.

    The Cappanacus O'Sullivan had his castle a few miles to the west of Dunkerron.  His stronghold was a narrow peel house or castlet, most unpretentious in its architectural features.  This ruin still braves the storms of the bay within the demesne of Dromore, near where the Kerry Blackwater joins the bay of Kenmare, after emerging from one of the most picturesque scenes to the south of Killarney at Blackwater Bridge.  The O'Sullivan of Cappanacus, in default of male issue to the O'Sullivan More, succeeded to his inheritance as next in seniority.

    Other septs of power and consideration were the O'Sullivans of Ardea, at the Iveratha side of the estuary, and the MacFinneen Duff, whose descendent in the female line, Mrs. Peter MacSweeny, only recently removed from the shore of Glenmore Lake, in the vicinity of that chieftains's home (Windle).

    O'Sullivan, Dunkerron.

    The shield of arms-- The blazoning is totally different from that in use by the O'Sullivans for the last two centuries-- which is, according to the heralds, Per pale, vert and ar.; on the first, a buck pass., ppr.; on the second, a boar pass., per pale, sa and ppr.; on a chief or two lions ramp. combatant, gu., supporting with the four paws a sword entwined with a serpent; crest, on a ducal coronet a bird ppr.

    Motto, "Lambh Foistenach an Machar."

    In Harris's Ware their war-cry is given as "Fustina-stelly-abo."

    "To me the Dunkerron shield and its charges have a very arkite expression, and seem quite a mythological composition.  The latter appears, more or less, connected with the legendary lore of the family.  Differing so entirely from all the recognised rules of heraldry in the sixteenth century, we may presume that in the blazoning the artist must have taken his instructions from the hereditary Bolsuire or Leanachuidhe, full traditional recollections of the race, who used "emblems and devices which had previously existed beyond the memory of man."

    In the chief or upper part of the field occurs the Murgheim Muirgheilt, Murruach, Merrow, or Mermaid, which may be explained by that legend of an O'Sullivan who woed and won, but only immediately to lose, one of those fabled sea nymphs, as we are informed in Crofton Croker's metrical version of the "Lord of Dunkerron."-- Kilkenny Journal, March, 1859.

  32. The Earl of Inchiquin: This remarkable man was called "Morrough un toth'aine"-- of the burning ("Word in Irish script," means to burn a house and its effects), from the dreadful conflagrations caused by him during the Cromwellian wars.  He was grandson of the Baron of Inchiquin, who perished in the Erne in 1597, fighting on the side of Elizabeth, along with his relative the great Earl of Thomond, against Red Hugh O'Donnell.  He thus from his earliest childhood learned the fatal tradition of his family, by sustaining the enemies of his Faith and country.  He was perhaps, the ablest commander on the royalist side, or of any of the military leaders then in Ireland.  He changed sides as often as it suited his ambition or personal interests, now a Royalist, again a Cromwellian, then a Confederate, and finally a Royalist.  He was like Cromwell, always successful during his short, Machiavelian career, and seems to have outlived his early wicked and cruel propensities.  He was converted to the Catholic church, the church of his fathers, fourteen years before his death, which happened 9 September, 1674, at the early age of fifty-six years.  His biographer in the Memoir of the O'Briens, p. 305, says:-- "Inchiquin's Protestantism, like that of many others in later times, was more of a political than a religious character."  One thing is certain he made the greatest sacrifice of his life to hold fast to his faith during these last forteen years.  His great ambition through life was to be President of Munster.  "Nor could anything," says Borlase (p. 178), "have barred him of it since His Majesty's happy return, wherein his servants had the fruit of their fidelity, but his change of religion, which equally prejudiced the Lord Dillon in the Presidency of Connaught, truly observable in them both."  He also had his children brought up Catholics, and thus incurred the anger of his wife who separated from him on this account.  He was created Earl of Inchiquin and had a grant of £8000 from Charles II.  His body was interred in Limerick in the Cathedral of St. Mary's.  His memory lives in the horror and execration of the Catholics of Ireland for his inhuman atrocity at the seige of Cashel.  "For, having shaken the walls with the power of his guns and not being able to effect a breach, he had recourse to the horrible expedient of piling up a great quantity of turf against the outward wall, and to this he applied fire, by which the religious and other people who were crowded inside were absolutely baked to death" (Lenihan's Limerick, p.161).  Upwards of thirty priests and friars fell victims to his refined cruelty on this occasion (Idem).  The Marquisate and Earldom became extinct on the death of James, third Marquis, 3 July, 1855.  The barony vests in Sir Lucuis O'Brien of Dromoland, as descendant of Donogh, third son of Morrogh, Tanist of Thomond.  The will of Inchiquin, bearing date 11 Sep., proved 14th Nov. 1674, directed that his body should be interred in the Cathedral of Limerick, and a decent monument erected to his memory.  The other provisions are very singular, and show his matter-of-fact mind to the last: "Whereas there is a debt of above £200 due to me from Lord Viscount Dillon and his son by bond and judgement, I bequeath the same to Patrick Nihil of Limerick, gent., for him to pay and satisfy thereout to my servant, Philip Roche FitzDavid, £50, which I owe him.  To William Comery, £100, which I owe him, £20 to the Franciscan Friars in Ennis, Co. Clare; £20 to Richard Assin, and the remainder to be disposed of by him according to the directions of the said Philip Roche, as well for the performance of the usual duties of the Roman Catholic clergy, as also for other pious uses, as I have already instructed the said Philip" (this was evidently for masses, which were then an illegal bequest, as they are yet in England).  Inchiquin after his death brought utter ruin on hundreds of his fellow Catholics by giving the thirty-three larges volumes of "lying" Depositions from 1641 to 1654, to Pereigh or Perry, secretary to his father-in-law, S. Leger, President of Munster.  Perry appears to have handed them over to Sir Philip Percival.  We have called them lying Depositions for the author who has published several of them assures us they have been thus named by "all Catholic historians and by some English Protestant writers during the last two centuries, as untrustworthy exaggerations, bearing internal evidence of their worthlessness, or else as deliberate wholesale perjuries, devised to bring about the confiscation of the lands of innocent men." (Ireland in the 17th Century, p. 121).  Warner, a clergyman of the Established Church of Ireland, says:-- "In these books, besides the examinations taken by the Royal Commissioners, there are several copies of others said to have been taken before them, which are therefore of no authority, and there are many taken ten years afterwards before Justices of the Peace appointed by the Commissioners of the English Parliament . . . I took a great deal of pains and spent a great deal of time in examining these books, and I am sorry to say they have been made the foundation of much more clamour and resentment than can be warrented by truth and reason."  And in another place he adds: "They are contained in two and thirty large volumes and deposited in the College Library of Dublin, besides one that contains the examinations that were taken by Archdeacon Bysse, for the province of Munster, which Borlase, among his other falsehoods, says, was smothered with great artifice."  "Reid," says the author of these two volumes of Depositions, "differs wholly from Warner," and she cites Reid at p. 327 of his History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.  Sir John Gilbert quoting this passage from Reid says, "Had Doctor Reid examined the whole collection, as has been done for the purposes of this report, he would have found that Warner's statement was in the main correct.  Innumerable instances occur, in which not only the words, duly sworn and examined have been struck out, but also many passages, in some entire pages, have been so dealt with.  Of this, a notable example is furnished by the volume for the county Waterford in which few pages can be found that are not thus cancelled."  Of Warner, the author cited above says in one place, "that he was a clergyman of the Established Church in Ireland, who wrote towards the close of the last century a rather dry, but on the whole a rather fair and candid history of his country" (p. 122).  But in another place she says, "Warner tells us he took much pain and spent much time in examining them" (these Depositions) "and never was time and pains more wasted."  And thus she finishes up on both Sir John Gilbert and Warner:-- "The strangest, the most incomprehensible thing, however, is that Mr. Gilbert, F.S.A., accredited with such talents for research" (for he was with the unanimous approval of all the learned men of Europe, pensioned and knighted) "by the the Government and the public, sitting down to make an exhaustive search into these documents for the purpose of an official report, should have accepted and done his best to make the world accept the gross mistakes of Warner for truth."

    Here it is a question of fact between Sir John Gilbert and this author.  It is well known that the late learned and eloquent Lord Emly spoke of Sir John Gilbert when he said: "Ireland had now scholars whose reputation in Archæology was European, and, to such of them as had made the Anglo-Irish muniments their special study, should be committed the superintendence of all Government record publications connected with that country."-- Speech in the House of Commons, 16th July, 1863.  Mr. C.D. Hardy, Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, and Mr. J.S. Brewer, of the Rolls Department, London, says of his letters, Record Revelations-- "In fact, we don't remember to have seen, in England or in Ireland, any work of the same nature in which so much critical knowledge of this kind has been displayed, or which indicates a greater familiarity with archæological studies."-- Record Revelations, p. III. pp. 6 & 7.  On the other side we have this author, who is so dogmatic in her condemnation of Sir John Gilbert, and of every one who disagrees with her bigotry or prejudices.  As to the doubt raised by this author about Inchiquin's religion at his death-- "it is said he died a Catholic," vol. 1, p. 125-- it is settled by his last will, given above.

  33. Owen O'Sullivan More was at the head of the Catholic nobility of Kerry at this time, as we see in the following signatures to a petition presented at Rome by Count O'Donnell, ten years previously, for the appointment of Domenicus a Rosario (Dominick O'Daly, of Tralee), a Dominican living at Lisbon, to the bishopric of Kerry.  He was the author of the "History of the Geraldines," and was a very learned and holy religious. - See a sketch of his life in the "History of the Dominican Priory, Tralee," by the Rev. John Ryan, O.P.  We give the full list, as it shows the greater number of the Catholics of eminence then in Kerry: - Donald O'Sullivan, alias O'Sullivan More; William FitzGerald, Knight of Kerry; John O'Connor, alias O'Connor Kerry; Maurice Fitzgerald, second son of the Lord of Kerry and Lixnaw; Donald McCarthy, son of the McCarthy More; John Fitzgerald, son and heir of the Knight of Kerry; Eugene O'Sullivan, son and heir of O'Sullivan More; Nicholas Browne, son of Sir Nicholas Browne; The MacElligott, James FitzJohn, of Liska; Henry More, Thadeus O'Donoghue, alias The O'Donoghue; Doctor Ffielde, Doctor of Medicine; Edmund Hussey, M.A., Professor of Law; James Duleen (Doolan), M.A.; Thomas FitzMaurice, of Ballikelly; James FitzJames, of Ballymacquin; Edmund FitzThomas, of Cosfole; Thomas Stacke, alias Stacke of Probabstachache; Richard Coutlone (Cantillon), of Trynstone; John Browne, alias Browne of Rybrowneighe; Dermitirus MacFfynyne, Dermod Oge McTrlighe, of Ballengone; John FitzEdmund, of Kilmena; Edmund FitzMaurice, alias McRobert; Patrick Fitzgerald, second son of the Knight of Kerry; Maurice FitzGerald, third son of the Knight of Kerry; Edmund Here, alias Here of Ballynosy; Nicholas Daule (Daly), of Lisneyconyng; Gerald Deasy, of Aghmore; Walter Hussey, so of Edmund Hussey, M.A.; Cornelius O'Connor, heir of the O'Connor; James FitzJames, of Telix; Edmund FitzMaurice, of Ardglass; John Stack, junr., of Killary; Thadeus J. Moriarty, heir of Dermod O'Duyne; Maurice FitzJohn, of Moghane; Maurice Browne, of Ardolodir; Manus Shire, Nicholas Fitzgerald, Roger Shihie (Sheehy), Maurice Roberts, of Mubilly; Richard McElligott; of Racaniny; Thomas Edmonds, of Myxogahan; Edmund McUlicke, of Graigenetle; Richard McDaniell, alias McDaniell of Rathronge; Thomas Joyle Urlye (Uxlye?); Maurice MacElligott, of Carrignefynny.

    This petition was also signed by the following Burgesses and Catholic inhabitants of the cathedral town of Ardfarty and of Trallye: - George Rise (Rice), Burgess; Robert McAndrew, Burgess; Gerald Coursy, Burgess; Mark Rice, Burgess; Patrick McEllistryme, alias McEllistrime, Burgess; Robert Rice, Burgess; Thadeus McReyxy, Burgess; Thomas Conye (Coyne), Burgess; John O'Connor, junior, Burgess; Edmund Goulde, merchant; Murrough O'Connor, of Tralee, gentleman; Donat O'Leyne, Burgess; Gerrott Oge Brennagh (Brennan?) Burgess.

    This petition from "Nos. infrascripti, Nobiles, Cives, et Oppidani Diocesis, Artfartensis et Achadoe in comitatu, Kyeriensi, in Hybernia, etc.," is vouched as genuine by the certificate of Patrick Raleigh (Patritius Ralens), Warden of Youghal, and Prothonotary Apostolic, who signed with a handsome seal. - "Wadding MSS."  Brady, vol. ii., pp. 56, 57.

    We give here the genealogy of Owen O'Sullivan More, in the time of Carew, written by this celebrated Governor of Munster, in his own handwriting: -

    "Owen O'Sullivan Mor m(arried)d Shylie Mac Donogh MacCarthy Reogh, and had Shylie, md (married to) Thomas O'Kunagher, and Donel O'Sullivan More, who md, first, Honora Fitzgibbon, dau of the White Knight, by whom he had no children; he had, secondly, Joan, dau of the Lord of Lixnawe.  The brothers of Owen, husband of Shylie, were (1) Desmond, tanist to his brother, md dau of McCarthy Reogh; (2) Buogh, md dau of O'Donovan; (3) Conogher, md Honora, dau of the Knight of the Valley; (4) Donell, md daughter of Dermot O'Leyne, and widow of the McGillicudy."  Sir George gives the O'Sullivan's forces in his time as: O'Sullivan Beare, 30 companies; Owen O'Sullivan's sons in Bantry, 80; MacFineen Duffe, 30, in Beare and Glanarough; Clan Lawra, 30, in Beare and Bantry.  The Coubrey (3), 40 in Beare; O'Sullivan More, 160, in Dunkerron; MacGillicudde, 100, in Dunkerron; MacCrohan, 40, in Iveraghe.  In the "Egerton MSS.," p. 616, we find that "The O'Sullivans were a much more considerable sept than the O'Donoghues, and possessed as large, or nearly as large, a portion of Lough Lene and Lough Barnasnaugh (Lower and Upper Lakes of Killarney), as a Donoghue and did not forfeit till 1641.  In the "Annals of Innisfallen" we read that the castles of Cappanacushy, Dunkerron, and Ardtully were built by Carew, and Killorglin, Molahiffe, and Castlemayne by Maurice FitzGerald. - "Annals of Innisfallen," A.D. 1329, copy in R.I.A.

    O'Sullivan-More Arms    O'Sullivan-Beara Arms
    O'Sullivan-More    O'Sullivan-Beara

    The coat of arms given at p. 262 differs from this, which was used by the O'Sullivans More during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.  It was first published by Dermod O'Connor in the folio magnificent edition of his "History of Ireland by Keating," Creake, London, 1723.  We are indebted to the Rev. Morgan O'Flaherty for our edition of this splendid work, which is one of the most perfect copies extant as regards the text and plates.  The blazoning, as given at p. 275, from the king-at-arms, is thus versified by one of the family:

    A robin red-breast perched upon a crown;
    Two lions rampant, with a dreadful frown;
    A stately stag and a grisly boar do stand.
    Beneath, a nervous, unconquered hand,
    That grasps a sword, around whose blade
    A shining, sparkling evet is displayed.

    This is usually assigned to the O'Sullivan Beara's "arms," as we see in the "Last Colonel of the Irish Brigade" (vol i., p. 132).  O'Connor, however, who lived and wrote in the beginning of the eighteenth century, could not have made such a mistake, as several members of the old family of O'Sullivan More lived in Kerry in his time, and assuredly made use of this blazon, and no other.

    Coat of arms on carved stone
    (This is the coat of arms referenced above & below as being on p. 262.)

    The following explanation of the coat of arms at p. 262 will, we are assured, interest our readers.  It will, at the same time, show why there is such a difference in both blazonries.  This learned dissertation is taken from the "Killkenny Journal," March, 1859: - "The Mermaid.  It is almost unnecessary to say that belief in these beings has been universal in all ages.  Hesiod speaks of syrens in the early periods of Greece, and Erick Pontoppidam describes the Mar Gyga of Scandinavia.  The Berugh is a prominent character in the folklore of Imokilly, according to Mr. Hackett.  His mermaid is endowed with the gift of prophecy, and so is the mermaid of Resenius mentioned in the 'Border Minstrelsy.'  Indeed, the belief has not died out in the present day, as we had a recent instance of the capture of a so-called mermaid in the newspapers.  That the O'Sullivans, a maritime tribe for the last six centuries, believed in their existence may be fully credited, and the tradition regarding the love passage of one of their house may be received as an event of sufficient mark to be preserved or recorded amongst the achievements grouped in the armorial escutcheon.

    "The extended open hand is assuredly characteristic of the 'Nulla manus tam liberalis,' etc., of which this ancient sept boasted, and of which they preserved a memorial in their motto: 'Lamh Foistenach.' - See p. 124, n.g.

    "Of the boar, the only one of these symbols preserved in modern heraldic charges, we have no indication in 'tale, romance, or lay.'  It was very probably some lingering remnant of that old porcine worship noted by Mr. Hackett in his paper published in these 'Transactions,' akin to the superstition of the Hindoo Boar, Varaha.

    "The fish, it may be suspected, also belongs to the same class of mythic beings; the piast is still, as of old, believed to haunt our lakes and rivers - a vestige assuredly of that serpent worship which we find in full vigour at this day in China.  We have lately seen going the rounds of the Press the following newspaper paragraph on this subject: - "The intendent of Ningpo sends a deputy in the dry season of every year to sacrifice to the dragon, and to pray for rain.  Besides this official service in time of drought, farming people often come at the same time, and, in order to move heaven to relieve the parched land, some even immolate themselves by drowning in the pool frequented by the dragon.'  Many of our Irish saints had to contend with this form of paganism.  Mochua of Balla overcame a horrid monster (Bellua) which infested one of the Connaught lakes.  Saints Senanus and Kevin struggled successfully with the piasts or dragons of Scattery and Glendalough.  Unlike as the piast on the escutcheon is to a lizard, Mr. Du Noyer conjectures upon it that it might indicate a joint coat of arms, a blending of the bearings of the two great families of O'Sullivan and MacCarthys, allied, as has been shown, more than once.  But the MacCarthys had not assumed the lizard at this date, if we can believe that the arms in the chancel a Mucross Abbey belong to them.

    "The galley, of course, refers to the maritime pursuits of this seaboard sept.  'In allusion to the galley,' says Crofton Croker, 'it may be mentioned that a favourite name of the O'Sullivans is Morty or Murty (correctly written Murcheartach), which literally means expert at sea or an old navigator.'

    "These arms not being in accordance with the Anglo-Irish blazoning, it becomes a question whether they belong to any recognised system peculiar to the native race.  If this were so, the Dunkerron sculptures would possess a peculiar interest, as heraldic bearings of that description are particularly rare.

    "O'Halloran tells us that at Tara the esquires of the nobility presented themselves at the door of the grand hall (Moidhchuarta) and gave in the shields and ensigns of their different masters to the deputies of the great marshal of the crown, and by direction of the king-at-arms they were ranged according to the quality of the different owners.  Dermod O'Connor, the translator of Keating, had, several years before O'Halloran wrote, published a statement somewhat similar, an interpolation on the text of the author.  But neither in the poem of Eochaidh O'Flinn, descriptive of this great banqueting hall, nor in that of Keneth O'Hartigan, who was contemporary with O'Flinn in the tenth century, and to whom Dr. Petrie refers as the sole authority from which writers have drawn their accounts of the magnificence of Tara, is there the slightest reference to armorial insignia.  But we have in Keating, and it is to be found in every copy of the original manuscript of that writer which I have seen, although his translator, O'Connor, has altogether omitted, a passage, since published by Dr. O'Donovan, informing us that the clans carried with them into battle distinctive military ensigns of various colours and textures.  These were as necessary, certainly, to them, as rallying points as their characteristic warcries or shouts.  The evidence of this fact is drawn from the ancient account of the battle of Magh Rath, fought in A.D. 637 between Domhnall, King of Ireland, and Cougal Claen, King of Uladh.  Here we find the contending armies marshalled under designs of different colours, each king having his own standard (Meirge), 'great symbol of plunder, floating from its staff,' and charged with emblematic devices.  Such was the banner of Congal, the King of Ulster,

    A yellow lion on green satin
    The insignia of the Cruath ruath,
    Such as the noble Conchobhar bore.

    "Keating, referring to this statement, derives the practice of distinguishing by banners, which prevailed in the earliest time, from the example of the Israelites in the exodus from Egypt, when each of the twelve tribes bore its blazoned standard, as the Tribe of Reuben the Mandragora, etc.  Indeed, we are expressly told in Numbers, ii., 2, that the Israelites carried with them standards 'with the ensigns of their fathers' house' upon them.

    "But although the clans were so distinguished, we have no evidence of armorial bearings or escutcheons in the sense of modern heraldy.  O'Flaherty, in 'Ogygia,' citing Batholemeus Cassaneus, describes the insignia of Ireland as a golden ring enthroned in majesty, holding a lily on a black field, but no date is given.  Dr. O'Donovan gives positive testimony against their use by any Milesian Irish family before the reign of Elizabeth, and avers that the Irish families 'first obtained the complex coat of arms which they now bear from England, retaining on the shield, in many instances, those simple badges which their ancestors had on their standards, such as the red hand of O'Neill, the cat and salmon of O'Cathain, or O'Dane, etc., etc., with such additions as the king-at-arms thought proper to introduce in order to complete the escutcheon after the Anglo-Norman system of heraldy, according to the rank of the family for whom the coat was manufactured.'  Elsewhere (p. 350) the learned doctors says: 'The armorial bearings of the old Irish families, as preserved in their tombs since the reign of Henry VII., if carefully collected, would throw much light on the kind of badges they had borne on their standards previously to their adoption of the Anglo-Norman system of heraldry.'

    "In these opinions of this justly esteemed scholar and antiquary I fully concur.  The few shields of arms belonging to the Milesian race which I have seen and examined at Inis Cailtre, Roscommon, Mucross, and elsewhere, are all blazoned in this Anglo-Irish style, and evidently belong to recent age.  Indeed it is highly probable that before the entire submission of the native Irish, temp. Elizabeth, those proud chiefs, who had so long fought to maintain their independence, refused to accept or to imitate the herald's art as organised in the English school." - "Kilkenny Archæological Journal," March, 1859.

    Weld shows his ignorance of the history of the families of Kerry when he wrote: "The O'Sullivan More, or head of the eldest branch of the family, according to their genealogy lately printed in London, is an English baronet.  The O was dropped some time before the family settled in England." - "Weld's Killarney," p. 282.  Owen O'Sullivan was Lord of Dunkerron, or the O'Sullivan More, to the end of the seventeenth century.  Donel, his son, succeeded him.  This Donel lost all his property in the Orange confiscations, except the few townlands at the Toomies forfeited by Lord Kenmare, which remained in the family up to 1762.  Sir Ross O'Connell says, in the "Last Colonel of the Irish Brigade," p. 52, vol. i.: "The last O'Sullivan Mor died at Tomies in 1762.  He left an illegitimate son, whose grandson is a fisherman at Killarney.  This grandson told me that when a boy, some thirty years ago, he went to see his grandfather lying dead at Tomies.  He saw in the room of the dead man a great pile of old papers, maybe three feet high, mostly written on skins in Latin and Irish, and, faith, I was in dread they might fall into the hands of the Mahonys or some other new people in the country, and they might get more of the O'Sullivan estates, so I burned them all myself."  Thus so many precious old family records have been destroyed, which would be now worth their own weight in gold to the antiquarian or genealogist.  The genealogy, as we find it in the O'Sullivan More's pedigree since the Cromwellian confiscations, is the following: -

    Owen, m. to d. of Sir Edward Fitzgerald, of Ballymaley
    Donal, d. about 1699
    Rory (Oro-Ramhar, Rory the fat) m. to Juliana, d. of Philip O'Sullivan, Beare
    Donald, died 16 Ap., 1754.  Buried in Muckross Abbey.  M. to Hester O'Sullivan, who d. 17 Jan., 1798.
    This was the direct branch of the O'Sullivan More; for we see in the "Book of Claims" this was all that was allowed them from their vast possessions from the Cromwellian confiscators: "No. 1289, Daniel O'Sullivan More claimed and estate in fee on two plough lands of Toomies by descent from Daniel O'Sullivan, his grandfather.  Forfeiting proprietor Nicholas Browne, alias Lord Kenmare."  If there be any legitimate descendents of Timothy O'Sullivan, of Lisbane, near Cahirciveen, they have a right to be called the O'Sullivan More of Cappanacus, for they alone of the Cappanacus branch in Kerry can trace their genealogy, without any break in the chain in the male line, to the days of the ante-Cromwellian wars thus: -

    Eugene or Owen, father of
    Teige or Timothy
    Donel or Daniel, father of
    (4) Dermod or Darby (last occupant of Cappanacus)
    (5) Eugene or Owen
    (6) John
    (7) Patrick (Lisbane, Cahirciveen)
    (8) Timothy (Lisbane, Cahirciveen)
    This would make over 300 years, allowing only 40 years to each generation, which is a very low average for the peasantry, especially for the eldest son.

    Eugene, or Owen, Sullivan lived in the time of Cromwell, for his son, John, was born in 1633, as already given at p. 128 of this "History," so that the descendants of this Timothy Sullivan are the legitimate owners of the burses of Louvain.  They and the descendants of the O'Sullivans of Fieries, as well as those of the Kellys of Ballybog, are, according to our judgement on the matter, the families in Kerry who have a just claim to these burses.  We have experienced whilst writing our "History of Muckross Abbey" and the short sketches of family history of those buried therein, that pedigrees can be invented by genealogists, as formerly in pagan Rome, where, after the destruction of the "Tables" by the Gauls, those used were falsified to flatter certain families that wished to trace their descent high ("Life of Numa").  This Valerius Maximus lamented in his time: "De his qui per mendacium se in alienas familias inseruerunt."  But who has a right to be called the O'Sullivan More at present?  The direct descendant of the O'Sullivan More of the Tomies is Doctor O'Sullivan, of Rathmore, and hence he, in the first place, has a right to be called the O'Sullivan More.  The descendants of the brother of Timothy O'Sullivan, of Prospect, Kenmare, father of Mrs. J. Sheehan, Innisfallen Hotel, Killarny, are, according to O'Donovan, the lineal descendants of the Cappancus O'Sullivans.  These, on the Continent, in the seventeenth century, called themselves O'Sullivans of Dunkerron, as the latter were the head of the family. - See p. 211 in this "Ancient History".

  34. Here was an abbey for regular canons of the Order of St. Augustine, and under the invocation of St. Michael, which had been removed hither from the island called the Great Skellig, but what time is uncertain (we would think it ought to be after the religious were starved to death in the Great Skellig, at A.D. 812, or after A.D. 885, when the last abbot is mentioned: "Died, the Abbot McCellach").  The abbey was rebuilt in 860. - "Annals of Innisfallen."  The situation of the Great Skellig being found extremely bleak, and the going to and from it highly hazardous, it was removed to Ballinaskellig, on the continent. - "Archdall," p. 307.  "There are two curiosities in this island," says Smith, p. 116, "the one of art and the other of nature.  The first is the curious workmanship of the (beehive) cells of stone, curiously closed and jointed without either mortar or cement, and are impervious to the air and wind, being circular stone arches at the top.  The other is the wells of fresh water on this rock."

    Archdeacon Rowan, who visited Ballinaskelligs in the middle of this century, gives us the following description of its ruins: - "On the north-west side of Ballinskelligs Bay, near the point forming its north-west headland, stand the ruins of an abbey of great antiquity.  It belonged to the cannons regular of S. Ausgustine, was dedicated to St. Michael, was flourishing at the time of the English invasion when Giraldus Cambrensis wrote his 'Topographica hibernica,' and the 'Innisfallen Annals' record the death of Flan MacCaillagh, Abbot of Skellig, A.D. 885.  (This, however, seems to be related of the Great Skelligs.)  It now lies in utter desolation, the sea wind whistles through the rents in the crumbling walls, and the sea-sand is fast burying, by its encroachments, buildings which at one time must have covered a considerable space.  Any architectural ornaments it must ever have had, if they have not already been carried away by the hand of the spoiler, now lie buried in the ruins.  A broken font, or Benatura, near the west entrance is the only remnant of antiquity to attract attention.  This building, with many others, upon the dissolution of religious houses by Henry VIII., was granted with many others to Richard Harding."  The impression it made on us twenty-five years afterwards was that of astonishment and admiration, to see such a pile of ruins, which must have been a regular town of ecclesiastical buildings, erected in such a remote and desolate locality.  For even now the houses of the peasantry are so few and far between, and so distant from the ruins, with the mighty waves of the Atlantic rolling on the beach and up to the walls of the monastery, deafening the ears with their thundering sound, that we felt a spirit of loneliness and a feeling of our own nothingness, and that of all creatures, under the mighty hand of the all-powerful Creator; for here, indeed,

    Crumbling arch and column
       Attest the feebleness of mortal hand
    But to that fane most Catholic and grand,
                   Which God hand planted.

    To that cathedral, boundless as our wonder,
       Whose quenchless lamps the sun and moon supply;
    Its choir, the wind and waves - its organ, thunder -
                   Its vault, the sky.

    There, admid solitude and shade, man wanders
       Through the ruined aisles, or spread upon the sod,
    Awed by the silence, reverently ponders
                   The ways of God.

    The whole history of Ireland in shade and sunshine is written on every stone of those hallowed walls, which have survived the convulsions of nature and the passions of men during the last well nigh one thousand years.

  35. Archdeacon Rowan says of this attack on O'Sullivan More by the Cromwellians: "On the way from Cahir or Valentia to the abbey of Ballinskelligs you pass a spot known by the name of Garri-na-Sassenach ('The Garden of the Protestants'), which has become memorable as the scene of this conflict, and as the cemetery of the English slain in this battle by the Irish, led by O'Sullivan More and his clansmen."  Besides this account by our author, we have the "Depositions of Voakley," taken before the Archdeacon Philip Besse and Benjamin Baraster, commissioners appointed to enquire into the losses sustained by the Protestants in Munster.  It is one of the "lying" depositions in the archives of Trinity College, of which mention has been made at p. 277 of this "History."  This Captain Voakley, or Vauclier, was a retainer and officer of Sir Edward Denny, and a descendant of Lords Vauclier of France, whose ancestor had attended the first Denny as a settler, and who was a man of wealth and importance for these times. - "Kerry Mag.," p. 181, vol I.

  36. Archdeacon Rowan, on the accusation against O'Sullivan More of having "treacherously killed" those Protestants, very honestly remarks: "He (Vauclier) gives no account of how he and his men came into that remote district, and though he gives a total of forty slain on the occasion, he names but thirteen out of the number," while our author holds to three companies of one hundred and fifty men; the most likely number, indeed, to have made this raid into a remote district.  The Archdeacon, writing during the Crimean war, adds very justly: "These accounts are generally as contradictory and exaggerated as proceed from Russian and English accounts of the forces and losses in the Crimea."  Vauclier, in this Deposition also gives a very just notion of the cause for which both parties in the Cromwellians wars fought, which he heard whilst detaining a prisoner twenty-three days near Adare.  The Depositions of this Voakley (or Vauclier) clearly prove the exaggerated account given by the victorious party of their losses during the Cromwellian wars.  Though this is a legal document to be tried by the "Commission for Enquiring into the losses sustained by his Majesty's subjects in the late troubles," yet he gives no dates nor particulars of these losses, but general accusations against certain Catholics, and a round sum of his damages for houses, leases, debts, and cattle, amounting to the enormous aggregate of £3,500, about £30,000 of our money.  The following is a correct copy of these Despositions: -


    (MSS., T.C.D.), "Kerry Mag.," vol. i., p. 182.

    Edward Voakley (Vauclier), late of Tralee, in the barony of Trughenackmy, county of Kerry, gent., being duly sworn and examined before me by virtue of a Commission for Enquiring into the losses sustained by his Majesty's loyal subjects in the late troubles, deposeth and saith: That, upon the 20 January, 1641, he lost, was robbed, and forcibly despoyled of his goods and chattels to the several values following, viz.: Of cowes, horses, mares, oxen, sheep, and swine to the value of £400; of household stuffe to the value of £21; of ready money to the value of £120; of wearing apparel to the value of £50; of corn and hay in house and haggard to the value of £260; of debts to the value of £500, which, ere this rebellion, were esteemed good debts, but now are become desperate, by reason some of the debtors are become impoverished Protestants, as John Mason, John Barrett, Arthur Rawleigh, and divers others, which this deponent did (sic) not now remember; and the rest Papists and rebels, as Garrett Fitzgerald at BallymacDaniel, Gen. Finine McDermott Carthy, of Glanerought; Thomas Malone, of the parish of Clogherbrien gent.; Edmund Moore O'Shane, of Ardglass, gent.; Cnogher Trassey, of Ballinerough, husbandman; Philim MacFineen Carthy, of Dromvallagh, gent.; Christopher Hickson, of Knockglass, gent.; John Granal, of same, gent.; all of the county of Kerry, and divers others, which this deponent cannot now remember.  Also, he says, that by means of this rebellion he is dispossessed of the benefit of certain leases in the county of Kerry: first, of the lease of New Manour, near Traly aforesaid, where he had a term of eighty years to run and upwards, worth above the landlord's rent £70 per annum, in which, together with his improvements and housing, now burnt down to the ground, he is damnified to the value of £600.  Also a lease of certain lands in Ballymullen, where he had a term of eleven years, if a certain woman so long lived, with £10 above the landlord's rent, wherein he conceives himself damnified in £50.  Also another lease of Gorthateample, wherein he had a tenture of 97 years, worth above the landlord's rent £7 per an.; damnified herein £100.  Also certain leases of certayne houses in the town of Traly, wherein he had a tenure of 99 years to come, all of them being burnt all to three, the number burnt thirteen, he conceives himself damnified to the value of £600 (a large sum, about £6,000 of our currency, for a vague, undertermined injury), the whole of his losses in goods and chattels amounting to the value of £3,600.  Also, he saith, his goods were taken away by Garrett FitzJames, Gerald of Ballymacdaniel, and Walter Hussey, of Castlegregory, gent., and their followers.

    On account of this Deposition, Walter Hussey was deprived of his castle and feehold estates, worth about £10,000 a year.  There was only one stone remaining of this famous castle in our day, which was taken away by Archdeacon Rowan, and is now, we believe, inserted in the wall of Edenburn House.  What a curious history of the "vicissitudes of families" does not this stone hand down to us?  The last relic of a castle, where its brave defenders held out to the last extremity, in the time of Elizabeth, and who even suffered death, rather than betray a bishop and Doctor Sanders into the hands of the Protestants, is now a monument in the house of the well-known lover and defender of the English Establishment; and the direct descendant of this Walter Hussey, accused here of being a robber by this Huguenot, is the guardian of nearly all the properties of the Kingdom of Kerry.

    Voakley continues: "His household stuffe and money were taken by the besiegers of Tralee, whereof these were the chief - Donald MacCarthy, of Castlelough, in said county, gent.; Florence MacCartie, formerly living with his father, O'Donovan, in the county Corke, gent.; Garrett McPatrick, of Aghamore, gent.; Finine MacDermot Carthy, of Glanerought, gent., captain among the rebels; Donogh MacFeinine Cartie, of Ardtully, gent.; Captain Teige MacDermot MacCormack Cartie, of near the Currans, gent; Captain Dermot O'Duigle O'Moriarty, of Ballinacourty; and Captain Donnell McMoriarty, of Castle Drum; and Captain O'Sullivan More, of Dunkerron, esq.; Captain Fineen McDaniel Carthy, alias Captain Sugane, near Glanerought, gent.; and divers others to the number of above one thousand.  He also saith that Donel McMoriarty, of Castledrum aforesaid, gent., hath possessed himself of his house in Tralee, and certain other tenements belonging to that house.  Also he saith that divers Protestants to the number of forty, as Arthur Barham, of Clogherbrien; Robert Brooke, of Carrignafeely; Robert Lentall, Tralee; Thomas Arnold, Tralee; John Cade, Tralee; Griffin Floyd, of Killarney; William Wilson, of Killarney, dyer; Donnell O'Connor, of Killarney, maltster; Robert Hearham, of Tralee; John Godolphin, of Tralee, shoemaker; Hugh Roe, of same place, barber; Benjamin Weedon, hosier; Henry Knight, tailour; Richard Hore, of New Manour, husbandman, were all treacherously killed by O'Sullivan More of Dunkerron and his followers to the number of five or six hundred.  This deponent having the command of the said Protestants, there being two more that escaped; and this deponent saved his life by leaping off a rock into the sea, being enforced to swim at least a mile, so got away, having first received fourteen wounds with swords and skeans, and one shot in the right shoulder, and one deepe wounde in the back with a pike; this was done about midsummer last, 1641, near Ballinskellicks, in said county.  He also said that eleven men and one woman was murdered on the 15th January last, coming out of the county of Kerry from the castel of Ballincurtin, which was then lately yielded upon quarter, in which they were; they were murdered in the mountains near New Market, by the rebels of Corke and McAuliffe, of Duhallow, in the county Corke.  The names of those that were murdered were these: - John Ellis, of Ballyduffe, in said county and his eldest son; Andrew Morgan, of the Currens, butcher (!) Elizabeth Dashwood, wife of William Dashwood, of Tralee, shoemaker; Hugh Williams, of Ballymariscull; Thomas Goodwin, of the Currens; John Wallis, servant to the Ward of Ballycurtin, and divers others to the number of eleven."  (But why were these in county Cork attacking McAuliffe's people?  And had not these latter any right to defend themselves?  These were murders invented to deprive the Catholics of their lands.)  This deponent also saith that about midsummer last, being employed by Sir Edward Denny, his captain from Corke into the county Kerry to give notice to the Castle Ward, which were in some distress, to prevent the yielding of the hold to the enemy, upon his intelligence of the Lord Forbes, his coming towards those parts to relieve them, he was by the way taken prisoner about the blakwake, in the middle of the mountain called Clieve-Lougher, by Teigue McAuliffe, of Castle McAuliffe; Bawne McAuliffe, Connagher Ceogh, near Liscarroll; and Owen O'Callaghan, of near Newmarket, to the number of 560 men, who brought him to the camp near Adare, where there were 7,000 then prepared to fight against the English, among whom were Garrett Barry, their general; Patrick Purcel, Lieutenant-general; Charles Henccy (Hennessy), sergeant-major-general; Garrett Purcel, lieutenant-colonel; Lord Roche - The Lord Roche; the Lord of Castleconnell (Bourke); Baron of Lougmoe, alias Theobald Purcell; O'Sullivan Beare, O'Sullivan More, Dominick Faunin, Mayor of Limerick; Edmund Fitzthomas FitzGerald, captain.  Deponent was detained twenty-three days, but after exchanged for Captain James Browne, taken at Newtown a little before.  He also saith that while in restarint he heard it generally spoken among them that 'they (the rebels) fought for the king's prerogative, and that we were the rebels and traitors,' and that they were not preferred to any palces of honour, and that they were not made judges of assize, and that they had not the liberty of their religion.  He also saith that the besiegers of Tralee burnt Sir Edward Denny's castle there, with the greatest part of the town, to the number of one hundred houses at least; also Richard Hoare, of New Manour, had his houses burnt to the number of four by the said besiegers at the time of the siege, and further he cannot depose.


          Jurat coran. norbis, 21 Martii, 1642,

  37. Joyce gives the derivation of this word from Irish script a little nest.  Tradition, however, has that it is from Irish script, that is, the "nest of Owen," the famous outlaw of the robber's rock in Kilgarvan.  This latter seems to us improbable, for we see by our author that it was called Nedeen at the year 1665, when a fort was erected here by the English; but Owen O'Sullivan of "Labbig Owen" was murdered by the O'Reardons in the year 1710, and we can scarcely believe he lived at Nedeen whilst the English fort was so close to him; and if we hold this tradition he could not have been more than twenty years when the fort was erected.  He, then, would have been sixty-five when he was murdered - an age scarcely possible for the dreadful struggle he made against the O'Reardons (see p. 264 of this "History").  Besides, such nomenclatures were never given to places until the occupants had long passed away.  Tradition, I have found, is a very unsafe guide among our Kerry peasantry of the nineteenth century.  All traditions for them beyond the third generation, that is, of their grandfathers, is an unlimited time of a hundred to a thousand years, as they mix up the legends of the last century with those of the times of the Danes.

    A century after this, Younge says: "Lord Shelbourne has a plan for improving Nedeen, to which he has given the name of Kenmare, from his friend the nobleman with that title, which, when executed, must be of considerable importance.  It is to build ten cabins (cottages), and annex ten acres to each cabin, rent free for twenty-one years; also to form twenty acres allotments for the parks to the town of Nedeen with design to encourage settlements in it, for which 330 acres are kept in hand.  The situation is advantageous, and ships of 100 tons can come up to it, with a very good landing place."  At this time the author remarks, that there was not a single plough in the parish of Tuosist, and, indeed, we do not see why there should have been, as it is almost impossible for a plough to work such crags and stony soil even in our own day.

    Nedeen was a mere village in the second half of the last century, for Younge, who wrote in 1770, says that "there are but three of four good houses in the hamlet."  Now there are two spendid and well kept hotels for visitors, besides several private comfortable inns.  Though the hamlet was called Nedeen, the Bay was always called Kenmare, as was also the surrounding district or parish.  The Earl of Kenmare, however, does not derive his title from Kenmare Bay or parish, but from Kenmare Castle, near Bruff, on his Hospital estate, in the county Limerick.  Kenmare is very interesting to the students of Irish history on account of the visit of the Nuncio, Rinnuccini to these parts, who landed at the mouth of the harbour.  We give the very graphic and interesting description of the arrival of the Nuncio at Kenmare Bay by the secretary of Rinuccini: "On the evening of the 21 October, 1645, our captain made the Kenmare river, but knowing that there were rocks ahead of the frigate, instead of proceeding landwards he cast anchor, and determined that we should stay there till next morning.  The wind blowing off the land embarrassed us considerably, and we had to work hard an entire day before reaching the shore.  As the Nunzio was most anxious to get ashore, a boat was manned, and we had him conveyed to the cabins of some poor shepherds and fisherman, in one of which we prepared his bed, which was brought from the frigate.  God was pleased to give him a good night's sleep, for he never closed an eye during the six days we were at sea after having left Rochelle.  Next morning I waited on him, and finding him in that poor hut could not help saying that as he was expected by the Irish people in the capacity of legate, it was very meet that, like our Lord and Saviour, his first dwelling would be a shepherd's cabin.  I then served his Mass of thanksgiving, which he celebrated before a multitude of the people of that region, who, despite its rugged character, came thither.  I then returned to the frigate with a few persons of the Nunzio's retinue, and as he set out the next day for the castle of Ardtully, I kept him constantly in view, and sailed close to the shore.  The kindness of the poor people whom his lordship encountered, as it were by chance, was incomparable.  They immediately slaughtered a large ox, two sheep, and a hog.  They also brought a prodigious quantity of beer, butter, and milk; and for us aboard the frigate, we, too, experienced the kindness of the poor people, who supplied us with excellent fish and oysters so large that we could desire nothing better.  Meanwhile, I continued my course in the frigate, creeping along and following his lordship, until I saw a haven about fifty paces long and a musket shot in breadth, so very beautiful that, yielding to impassive curiosity, I had a boat lowered, and rowed off to inspect the place.  While admiring the attractiveness of that anchorage, I was instantly surrounded by a crowd of men, women, and children, who came running down from the hills to see me.  Some of them observing the image of the crucifix which I wore on my breast, approached one by one and kissed it.  They then made signs of kindness and compelled me, with gentle violence, to enter one of the nearest cabins, where they made me a seat of pillow stuffed with feathers.  A venerable old matron, with her daughters and other women, came close to me, and the old matron furtively kissed my lips, and I believe the others would have done likewise if I did not give them to understand by signs that they should not act thus to one who carried on his person our Saviour's image, and was a priest in the suite of the Apostolic Nunzio.  The same matron then brought me a wooden bowl of most delicious milk, which she pressed me to drink.  It was so good I took more than one draught.  I had hardly got away from the crowd, in order to go on board, when I was followed by sundry young fellows, who accompanied me to the water's edge, and signified by signs that they were anxious to go further.  How wonderful that there are among the mountains and wilds, where the people have been reduced to misery by the ravages of heretics - how wonderful that all of them, men, women, and children knew by heart the Lord's Prayer, Angelical Salutation, and the Precepts of the Church.  Meanwhile, the Nunzio was met by some of the nobility, who came with a detachment of troops to escort him, for his landing had been made known by messengers despatched to various districts.  That night the Nunzio was hospitably entertained by the lord of that mansion and region, who treated him with great magnificence.  There he rested two days.  The actual lord of the surrounding country, called Glenaroughty, according to immemorial Irish custom, is the MacFinneen, a dignity which always devolves on the male heir alone.  The MacFinneen of that time was a Donough, a noble singularly distinguished for his many virtues, of the royal and most ancient family of the MacCarthys, whose wide-spreading branches, kinsmen and clansmen, inferior, indeed, to their chief, but, at the same time, very powerful and wealthy, namely, the O'Sullivans of Beara and Bantry, the O'Callaghans, the MacCarthies Reevagh, and many others, who having heard of the Nunzio's arrival, lost no time in coming to bid him welcome.  All of these chieftains were hospitably entertained by the MacFinneen and his excellent wife, Catherine McCarthy, daughter of Lord Muskerry, surnamed 'Cormac the Blind.'  Along with the Nunzio's retinue the MacFinneen sumptuously entertained all the Irish who accompanied the former to Ireland." - "Franciscan Monasteries," p. 349.  The last of the MacFinneens who lived at Ardtully was Randal MacFinneen MacCarthy, great-grandfather of the learned and holy Doctor MacCarthy, late Bishop of Kerry, and one of the most learned writers of our day as expositor of scripture or as an Irish ecclesiastical historian.  The son of this Randal built the house in which the late Eugene MacCarthy lived till the time of his death.  This family of the MacFineens lost all their property in the Orange confiscations; thus, after four hundred years of strife and truce, defiance and alliance, with the English invaders, they lost their paternal estates through a foolish loyalty to the last of the ungrateful Stuarts.  See "History of Muckross Abbey," chap. iv., and a well written paper in your "Journal" by the present lineal descendant and only rightful bearer of the thrice honourable and ancient name of MacCarthy MacFinin, Randal MacFinin MacCarthy, Esq., Custom House, Dublin.  The castle of Ardtully is situated at the head of the bay, a short distance from Kenmare, the ancient Nedeen.  A sweet little nest, indeed, both for seculars and religious is Nedeen.  It is stated on good medical authority that it is one of the healthiest resorts for lung disease in Ireland.

    Younge whilst at Nedeen, in the last century, made the following pertinent queries, which contain a whole volume of the history of Irish agitation and mis-governement.  We are, however, glad to be able to leave on record that it is a suggestion which as been wisely put in practice by the "Congested Districts" Board on the Trench estate, through their intelligent and eminently practical engineer, Mr. Henry Doran, junior, J.P.: - Relative to the improvement of the wild regions within sight of the house I was in, I asked, "Suppose five acres of those mountains to be cleared of stones, a stone cabin built at £7 expense, and a wall raised round the whole, and to be let at a reasonable rent, would a tenant be found?" ("Young," vol. ii., p. 90)  "That moment, suppose six of them or twelve, you have tenant for all, even if there were an hundred."  Here is a serious consideration for the present Lord Lansdowne or his agent!  At that time this truly practical Englishman tells us that "The labour of the farms is generally carried on by cottars (cottiers), to whom the farmer assigns a cabbin and a garden and the running of two collops on the mountain, for which he pays a rent; he is bound to work with his master for threepence a day and two meals.  Their food in summer potatoes and milk; but in spring they have only potatoes and water.  They never eat salmon."  I suppose not at threepence a day wages; neither do they now at two shillings a day.  I believe their state at present is as bad, if not worse, than in the days of Younge, 120 years ago, and why they should be is a serious subject of thought for those who believe in the words of Him who has said: "As long as you have done it to the least of my little ones, you have done it to me."  Weld, at the end of the last century, tells us: "Nedeen (sic) is the principal place of trade on the Kenmare river.  It is a very small town, and though we observed some new houses, has, on the whole, an appearance of decay.  Perhaps this is to be attributed to the very bad roads which lead to it; and if so, it will probably not recover soon, as it seems the object of the inhabitants of Kerry rather to direct their new roads towards the Blackwater, which is a more convenient place for shipping, and better situated for supplying the inland district with foreign commodities.  There is an abundance of excellent limestone at Nedeen, by means of which the hills around might be all readily improved, and if the occupiers received good encouragement agriculture would flourish and the country very probably wear a different aspect from what it does a present." - "Weld's Killarney," p. 293.

    There was a scion of a very old Irish family in Kenmare in the year 1840, who himself, says O'Donovan, was born to an estate, but who was then in the humble position of weighmaster of the town.  His name was McAuliffe, and he was the head and last of his family.  The last chief of this family is traditionally remembered as a poetical prophet in the last part of the century.  He foretold the granting of Emancipation to the Irish Catholics, and the awful decrease of their number by famine soon after, and, what is more extraordinary, the final extinction of his own descendants." - O'Donovan's "Tribes of Ireland," p. 66.  He certainly must have been a very great friend of God, and have lived a very holy life, to obtain such a knowledge of the contingent future as the famine and the extinction of his race.  As to Emancipation, that could have been foreseen by any ordinary intelligence, and, in fact, was fortold by all the great liberal-minded historians and politicians of the day.

    This poet was one of the MacAuliffes of AesElla, whose chief residence was Castle MacAuliffe, near Newmarket, in the north-west of the barony of Duhallow, in the county of Cork.  MacAuliffe's country comprised all the wild, mountainous, and heathy district lying between Newmarket and the boundary of the counties of Limerick and Kerry, where the rivers Feale and Blackwater have their sources.

  38. Captain Brennan was a nephew of O'Sullivan More.  The lands of the O'Brennan in Kerry were a parochial district called O'Brennan, between Tralee and Castleisland.  Aodh Beanan died King Iar Mumhan, West Munster, A.D. 614.  A poet cited by the "Four Masters" at this year.  It is thus given by the translator of John O'Connell's 'Dirge':

    When his broad shield he shook, his foes would yield;
    E'en on his back it was the Munster Shield.

    According to the "Annals of Clonmacnoise," he died in 1619.  The O'Brennans were a numerous sept in Ossory, and are commemorated by O'Duggan and O'Heerin.  O'Duggan, however, acknowledges that they were originally from Munster, like the O'Broders:

    Irish script
    The O'Broders of the beautiful plain,
    The MacBraoins and O'Braonains,
    Not one sept of them has passed away,
    These three tribes are of the Munstermen.
    Irish script
    Ui Duach of Ossory of the warm soil,
    The fair, wide plain of the Feoir,
    Not easily passable is the wood of the plain,
    Its protecting chief is O'Braonain.

    John O'Connell, in his "Dirge," speaks of the name in terms of the highest praise:
    Irish script
    The race of Hugh O'Brennan, of many virtuous qualities,
    From the borders of Limerick to O'Brenan's hill.

    The famous Saint Brendan, of Ardfert, was of this name and family.  Father O'Donoghue, P.P. of Ardfert, has given us a learned and very interesting life of this wonderful man, and of his voyage across the Atlantic.

    At the year 1159 the "Four Masters" record the death of Branan MacBranan, chief of Corcaghlin, in an engagement between the O'Connors and O'Briens; and in 1256 Randal MacBranan, lord of the same place.  Corcachlan is a territory in the east side of the county Roscommon, comprising the parishes of Bunalin, Kiltrustan, Clonfinlough, and the western half of the parish of Lissonhoufy, which half was anciently called Templereagh.  An inquisition taken on the 1 June, 34 Eliz., finds that the rectory of Corcaghlan extended into all the townlands of the parishes of Bunalin, Kiltrustan, Clonfenloughe, and Templereoghe. - Colgan's "Trias Thaum.," p. 134, and O'Donovan's "Four Masters," under the years 1410 and 1210.  MacBranan, chief of this territory, was descended from the noble Druid, Ona, who presented Imleach Ona, now Elphin, to Saint Patrick. - "Four Masters," ad A.D. 1256, No. I.

    In 1385 Thomas S. Leger, Baron of Obergy, received from the treasury 10 marks as a reward for taking prisoners Dermot Roe O'Brennan and John Roe O'Brennan, and slaying Teige, son of The O'Brennan.  John, son of William O'Brennan, an Irishman, obtained the freedom of English law for himself and his issue in the year 1399.  We find at the year 1355 that Thomas O'Brennan had a similar denization, as had also Arb O'Brennan and his issue in 1452, and David and Clement Brennan, "Irishmen," in 1460.  Early in the reign of King James I., Donat and Melaghlin, sons of Firr O'Brennan, were seized in fee of lands in the county of Kilkenny, of which they then executed a family settlement.  In 1622 there is "a settlement of lands of Adamstown" by Edmund Brennan and his heir, Oliver, and by Eleanor Brennan (alias Lynch), the wife of said Oliver.  Edmund died ten years after, Oliver, his heir, being then ten years of age.
      (Webmaster's note: This must be a mistake.  It seems logical to assume that Eleanor was the wife of Edmund, not Oliver, as Oliver must have just been born when the "settlement" was enacted.)

    An inquisition taken in 1635, at Kilkenny, found Donat, son of William O'Brennan, and fourteen others of their sept, proprietors within that county.  In 1646 John Brennan was a member of the Supreme Council held in Kilkenny.  There was also a John Brennan in Moore's Irish Brigade, and an Edward Brennan in the King's Own, as was another John Brennan in Col. E. Butler's. - Dalton, vol. ii., p. 576-577.  The name is still very numerous in Idough.

  39. Ballybog, "The Town of the Bog," now Sneem.  The river was always called Sneem.  Smith thus speaks of this district as it was 150 years ago: "The parish of Kilcrohan is also very large, reaching from a river called Blackwater in this country to the Bay of Ballinskelligs, being about fourteen Irish miles in length, and five or six miles up the country towards the mountains . . . In many places it is almost impassable, because of the infinite number of rocky hills and deep bogs dispersed through it, particularly a large tract of it called Ballybog, in which Doctor Gland hath a small lodge and a great number of unprofitable acres of land.  The lands of Aghamore in the western part of the parish, with the island called Scarriff, are the property of the Right Hon. the Earl of Orrery, adjoining to which Lord Carbery has also a considerable tract.  In the upper part of the harbour of Sneem, which is about the middle of the sea coast side of this parish . . two small mountain rivers discharge themselves, in one of which are great quantities of trout and salmon.  Between these rivers, Doctor N. Bland has built a summer lodge, with a design of reclaiming a vast adjoining bog, through which he has caused several large drains to be cut, and manured it with sea-sand."  It must be acknowledged that the Blands were always most generous and kind-hearted landlords.  Would that we could say the same of the heartless foreigners who have succeeded them?

    Lewis thus depicts Sneem, or Ballybog, as it was seventy years ago: "The village, which is irregularly built, has been lately somewhat improved by the erection of some new houses; and a new road hence to the pass of Carneduff, on the small road between Killarney and Kenmare, is now in progress through an extensive boggy tract, part of which surrounded the village.  A penny post to Kenmare has been lately established.  Petty sessions are held generally once a month, and a constabulary police force is stationed here.  Fairs are held seven times in the year for general farming stock and for flannel and frieze.  Here are the parochial church and the prinicpal Roman Catholic chapel of the district of Ballybog; also the parochial school and a school held in the chapel.  A dispensary has been lately established." - "Lewis's Topographical Dictionary."  How changed is its whole appearance at present for the better, owing, we must admit, to the intelligence of two men - the late Mr. O'Sullivan, and the father of the Sheehan Brothers.  One of the latter has erected a well-appointed hotel, where the tourist can find every requisite of the nineteenth century, with the quietness and retirement of a peaceful home, built on the bank of the river, and commanding a view of the surrounding magnificent mountain scenery.  For a lover of the "finny tribe," or a cyclist in search of the bracing ozone of sea and mountain air through the finest roads for the wheel in Ireland, we know not any part of the British Isles more attractive and more healthful.  The view from the bridge of the new splendid Catholic Church, erected by the late Earl of Dunraven, is one of the most beautiful pictures of river, wood, church, and mountain landscape we have seen anywhere.  The town itself, instead of going to decay, like most other country villages in Ireland, has increased by leaps and bounds since we first saw it twenty-five years ago.  There are now four splendid Catholic schools in the parish - one, with a convent attached to the church, erected by the Countess of Kenmare - and two very beautiful structures under the National Board in the town.  The square is one of the largest in Ireland - in fact, is a fairgreen - enclosed all round by lines of houses.  It is quite close to the little paradise of the west, Parknasilla, so well known to tourists to the South of Ireland.

    Smith gives the following curious anecdote of Ballybog: "I have in my survey met with some good Latin scholars who did not understand the English tongue, particularly one Peter Kelly,* who lived in a very uncultivated part of the county, already described.  Greek is also taught in some of the mountainous parts, generally by persons who pick it up as mendicant scholars ('poor scholars') at some English school.  Neither is the genius of the commonalty confined to this kind of learning, for I saw a poor man near Blackstones who had a tolerable notion of calculating epacts, golden number, dominical letter, moon's phases, and even eclipses, altho' he had never been taught to read English."  Smith, p. 414.

          * Tradition has it that his name was "Paddy" and not Peter Kelly.  He died unmarried.  The ruins of his hedge-school can yet be seen at Ballybog.  The descendants of his relatives are yet represented at Cahirciveen.  As they are the legitimate owners of the O'Sullivan Burses, in the female line, we here give their genealogy, and that of their descendant, Mr. Michael Fitzgerald, M.D.C., Killarney:

    John O'Sullivan, founder,
    Mary O'Sullivan, his sister,
    married to
    Charles Brennan.
    Margaret Brennan, their daughter,
    married to
    Bryan Kelly, Ballybog.
    Mary Kelly, their daughter (lived to 115 years of age),
    married to
    Cornelius Sullivan.
    Mary Sullivan, their daughter (lived to 105 years of age),
    married to
    Richard Fitzgerald.
    Michael Fitzgerald, their son.
    Edward Fitzgerald (student in Roman Catholic College, Maynooth).

  40. Iveragh contains the following parishes - Caher, Desmond, Glanbehy, Killendagh, Killonane, Killorglin (part of), Puir, Valentia.  It is a very wild and desolate district in winter, as it is composed principally of mountain and morasses, lying between Dingle Bay and the wild Atlantic; hence the sarcastic verses of "Rhing Dhow," the family poet of the O'Flaveys:

    Nasty Iveragh with the grey dragoons,
    Glencar, where corn never enjoys autumn suns,
    Bare and rugged high mountains from that to the west,
    These are the parts St. Patrick never blessed.

    This is a literal translation of the original doggerel.

    The following translation of the Irish verses by the late Mr. J. Leahy, of South Hill, seems to us too severe on the good people of Iveragh:

    Rugged Iveragh, of evil deeds the bed,
    And stern Glencar, whose cornfields never spread,
    These and the three hills dividing Desmond from the west,
    Are the three hills Saint Patrick never blessed.

    Tradition has it that the occasion of these verses arose from the building of the mansion of the O'Falveys at Faha.  "The mortar used in the old house of Faha was tempered with bullock's blood, mixed with hair, and so generous was the owner, Darbey O'Falvey, that he distributed the beef among the workmen.  Not having sufficient blood to temper all the mortar required, he ordered some of his people to collect some of the wild cows from the mountains of Glencar and Glenbeigh."  The gang was headed by Rhing Dhow, who ran ten of the cattle into a defile.  Here two of the wild bulls attacked them with such fury that they were obliged to fly for their lives; and Rhing Dhow, smarting under his failure, expressed his wrath against the whole district in the above verses to his master, Darby O'Falvey, of Fahagh Court.

    Iveragh - Caherciveen.  The latter means the "stone fort of Sabina."

    The O'Sheas were the original owners of Iveragh, as we see in the words of O'Heerin: -

    Irish script
    O'Shea has obtained without denial
    A country not wretched; he is king of Ui-Rathoch (Iveragh).

    The O'Falveys, in later times, had a property in Iveragh, which is yet in the possession of Mr. E. Morough Bernard of Fahagh Court; hence in the "Blessing of the Poor Scholar" on the family of O'Falveys we find: -

    Irish script
    In recent times thy kindred
    Came hither from Iveragh,
    True sons of Milesius, the Spaniard.
    Thy kindred were among the noblest
    Of the blood of the Gael.
    Through all the land of Erin there were none
    Who proved more worthy of their high descent.

    Here we see a very ancient poet of the tenth or eleventh century, lauding this country of the O'Sheas and O'Falveys, which is so cynically satirized by Ring Dhow.  Everyone must acknowledge the magnificent scenery of mountain, lake, and river in this barony, and especially the grand panoramic view from the hill over Waterville, with the vast expanse of the Atlantic ocean beneath on one side, and on the other, the frightful precipitious mountain overtopping the road, where in winter

      .  .  .  .  Ye toppling crags of ice,
    Ye avalanches, whom a breath draws down
    In mountainous overwelming . . .
    The mists boil up around the glaciers; the clouds
    Rise curling fast beneath me, white and sulphury,
    Like foam from the roused ocean of deep hell.

    And then what a picture of wild and weird beauty meets the eyes of the tourists as they round the top of this hill overhanging Derrynane Valley, which presents the finest mountain and ocean views in the British Isles for those who only a day before escaped from the smoke of a city or from the monotonous walls of their offices or clubs to find peace and rest:

    Not there! but in dark and rocky cave
    And hollow vale which foaming torrents fill
    With omnipresent murmer as they rave
    Down their steep beds that never shall be still.

    The view of the landscape beyond the Kenmare Bay, where "crag upon crag" and mountain fastnesses are heaped up like the surging waves of the Atlantic in a storm, or like those forming the cave of Sphragitidian nymphs on the side of Mount Citheron, on which from the setting sun

    Wide be the western casement thrown
       At sultry evening's fall,
    The gorgeous lines be duly shown
       That weaves Heaven's wondrous pall.

  41. Ross Castle, near Killarney, whose picturesque ruins are such an object of attraction on the brink of the Lower Lake.  This castle has also an historic interest as having been the last fortress held by the Irish and Catholic party in the Cromwellian wars.  It was surrendered by Lord Muskerry to the regicide Ludlow, who had ships brought into the lakes from Killorglin.  Ten thousand soldiers then laid down their arms.  We are glad, however, to find that not one of the O'Sullivans signed the "articles of agreement."  These were signed 22 June, 1652.  Archdeacon Rowan tells us that the garrison surrendered on account of an old prophecy which said that the castle would not be taken by an enemy until a ship would be seen in the lake:

    Ross may all assult disdain,
    Till on Lough Lein strange ship shall sail.

    The ships were built in Kinsale, and brought by water to Killorglin, and thence by land to the lake.  There was a long discussion between writers on this subject, whether the ships were dragged against the rapids of the river Laune, or over the rough wastes of this then impassable district.  This doubt is now cleared up by the account given by an eye-witness, in a MS. in Trinity College: "They sent to some of the adjoining seaports," says the writer of this account, "for boats one whereof was so large that they were forced to draw it upon sledges by oxen from the abbey of Killaha.  The merrily-di-posed soldiers that attended the boat in its land passages had adorned her pageant-like with streamers, sails, and vast cloaths, so that to the enemy in the castle of Ross at a distance it appeared most terrible but above, seeing it in that place upon dry land, and not being able so well to view the oxen that drew it, did wonderfully astonish them, for now they thought most certainly it was impossible any longer to retain Ross, which was then to be take, when ships sailed on land, which saying was now most surely verified, so that before the boat could come so nigh the castle as to betray the fallacy, the Irish beat their drums for a parley." - From a transcript of Eugene Curry in the "Ordnance Survey of Kerry," vol. i., p. 223, in the Royal Irish Academy.

    [This proves that the prophecy referred to a ship "sailing on land," and not on the Lakes, which was most likely, as the most extraordinary.]

    This was not, however, the first time that ships were brought to the Lakes of Killarney; for we see in the "Annals of Innisfallen" that five hundred years before this time Diarmod Sugach O'Connor brought ships on wheels from the territory of Corco Diubhal to Loch-Lein; and we read in the same "Annals" that a year after this, A.D. 1157, "having escaped out of a battle, he sent messengers to his people desiring them to take away the barges, or barques, from Lock Lein and Innisfallen."

    Ross Castle was retained as an English stronghold and barracks till the year 1825.  It is now a romantic background to the enchanting scenery of the Lower Lake.  See a paper on the surrender of Ross Castle in our "Antiquities of Killarney."

    The articles of surrender were signed, sealed, and delivered 22 day of June, 1652, in the presence of

    Hugh Rogers.   Edmund FitzMaurice.
    Andrew Elliot.   Gerald FitzMaurice.
    Francis Gould.   Robert Coppinger.
    Andrew Reyne.   Callaghan O'Callaghan.
    John Meade.   
    Mem. - That in case of difference between the saide two appraisers of both sides, everything shall be referred half to Lieutenant-General Ludlow, or whom he shall appoint, and the other half to Lord Muskerry, or whom he shall appoint.  I ratify and confirm these Articles, 23 June, 1652.
    E. F[itzMaurice.]
    G. F[itzMaurice].
    R. C[oppinger].
    C. O'C[allaghan.]

    Ross Castle was, at this time, the property of Sir Valentine Browne, third baronet of the name, and, luckily for himself, a minor, or he might have tasted all the miseries and forfeitures of those times (see "Lake Lore," pp. 114 to 123).

  42. ARDEA CASTLE (See p. 273, vol. iv. No. 40.)

    The "Paccata Hibernia" gives at p. 660: - "The warders of the castles of Ardea and Carricknesse on the sixth of the same moneth despayring of their master O'Sulevan's returne, rendered both their castles and their lives to the Queen's mercy, so that although he should have animum revertendi (Donal Cam, Lord of Beare), he had neither place of safetie whereunto hee might retyre, nor corn or cattel to feed himself, much less to uphold or renew any warre against the State."  These castles were afterwards given to Sir Owen O'Sullivan More, who fought on the side of the English at this time.

    In the "Life and Times of James O'Sullivan," by Thomas Amory, we have a very interesting genealogical note from the son of the last owner of Ardea, Philip O'Sullivan, son of Sir Owen O'Sullivan and the daughter of Colonel Owen MacSweeny, attainted with his father, who was obliged to fly to France, where he died from the effects of a wound received in a duel.  When this Philip's son dictated the note he was nearly a hundred years old, so that his recollection went back to close on 1688: - "My father was Major Philip O'Sullivan, of Ardea Castle, in the county of Kerry.  My mother's name was Joanna MacCarthy, daughter of Dermot MacCarthy, of Killowen.  She had three brothers and one sister.  Her mother's name I forget, but she was a daughter of MacCarthy Reagh, of Carbery.  Her eldest brother was Colonel Florence, or MacFineen, and he and his two brothers, Charles and Owen, went out in defence of their nation against Orange (the Prince of Orange).  One was killed in the battle of Aughrim.  Florence had a son, who retained the name of MacFineen.  Charles I just remember.  He left two sons Darby and Owen.  Darby married Ellen O'Sullivan, of Bunaune.  His brother, Owen, married Honora Mahony, daughter of Denis Mahony, of Dromore, in Dunkerron, county Kerry, and died in the prime of life much lamented.  My father died of an ulcer in his breast, caused by a wound he received in France in a duel with a French officer.  They were all a short-lived family.  I never heard that any of the men arrived at sixty, and I do not remember but one alive when I left home in 1723.  They were short-lived on both sides; but the brevity of their lives, to my great grief, is added to the length of mine.  My mother's sister married Dermot, eldest son of Daniel O'Sullivan, Lord of Dunkerron, and her son, as I understand, was with the Pretender in Scotland in 1745.  This is all I can say about my origin, but I shall conclude with a Latin sentence:

    Si Adam sit pater conctorum mater et Eva,
    Cur non sunt homines nobilitates pares
    Non pater aut mater dat nobis nobilitatem
    Sed moribus vita nobilitatur homo.

    If Adam be father of all, and Eve the mother,
    Why, then, are not all men equally noble?
    Neither father nor mother give true nobility,
    But a man is ennobled by his life and manners.

    Mr. Lynch, in his letter to Mr. Bigger, says: - I believe that for want of registration of title, it (the castle and estates) reverted to Lord Lansdowne, the representative of Sir William Petty. - "Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries," 4 quart., Dec., 1898, p. 323.  So far is this from being the fact that we know from the history of this family that the rightful owners of Ardea asked from Ormond, after the Restoration, a small farm, near the castle, to sustain their family, and were heartlessly refused.  The following anecdote, given by Weld, show how tenaciously the poor, downtrodden descendants of the Ardea family yet cling to the title of these lands.  In the twelfth year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Sir Owen O'Sullivan in order to establish a substantial title to the countries he then held, surrendered them to the crown, and received a formal grant thereof by patent.  This measure gave rise to a long suit at law between Sir Owen and his nephew, Donel McDonel O'Sullivan, the latter of whom endeavoured to prove that his uncle had usurped the possession at the death of his (Donel's) father.  Sir Owen, on the contrary, pleaded that the possession of the estates had fallen to him by the laws of tanistry, and had been afterwards irrevocably established by the letters patent.

    The suit terminated in a commission being issued under the great seal, dated at Dublin the 18th July, in the thirty-fifth year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, directing Sir Thomas Norreys, Vice-president of Munster, and others, to partition and plot out, by certain limits and boundaries, the territories, heriditaments, castles, etc., in Beare, Bantry, Ardea, and others, belonging to the O'Sullivans; which partition was effected by an instrument dated at Mallow, 15th January, 1593.  The castle and dependencies of Beare were allotted to Donel, and Bantry, etc., to Sir Owen, saving only to Sir Philip O'Sullivan, the younger brother to Sir Owen, the castle of Ardea and its dependencies.  Attempts, however, were made, a few years afterwards, to wrest the castle of Ardea from the lawful possessor, pursuant to the old custom of tanistry; whereupon an appeal was made to the Lord Duputy of Ireland; and, upon the petition of the injured party, a copy was granted of the above-mentioned instrument of partition.  Sir Philip's heir was secured in his rights; and the family continued to maintain possession of the castle, until it was forfeited during the civil wars.

    In the year 1802, Mr. Beltz, having had occasion to visit the South of Ireland, stopped at the house of O'Sullivan McFinan Duff; where, inquiring, through curiosity, if any of the Ardea branch of that family remained in existence, he was informed that a cottager, in very humble circumstances, lived in the neighbouring mountains who was reputed to be the lineal descendant of Sir Philip.  Desirous of an interview with him, a message was sent to that effect: the ruins of Ardea Castle, on the banks of Kenmare river, were fixed upon as the place of redezvous; and, pursuant to appointment, the man, accompanied by his whole family, appeared there on the allotted day.  Aware, in some measure, of the object of the interview, he had brought in his hand a bundle of parchments and papers, which he opened and spread on the grass.  They were all in a mouldering state, and nearly obliterated by the damp and smoke of his cabin.  Of their purport he knew nothing: no person, he said, to whom he had ever showed them, not even the priest of the parish himself, had been able to read them; but, as they had been handed down from father to son, for many generations, he had preserved them with a scrupulous care to the best of his ability.

    Mr. Beltz, prior to his examination of these writings, wished to assure himself of the identity of the person who brought them: he therefore put numerous questions to him, each of which was answered with such precision, that no doubt could remain of the man being the actual lineal descendant of Sir Philip O'Sullivan.  It happened that he was the seventh in descent from Sir Philip,* which, allowing thirty years for each generation, made up a period of two hundred and ten years; nearly agreeing with the date of the first settlement of the family at Ardea.  Mr. Beltz then took up one of the parchments, and, to his surprise, found that it was the actual copy of the deed of partition which had been granted to Sir Philip's heirs, upon petition to the Lord Deputy of Ireland, in the year 1613.  He next discovered the original draft of the petition, with several other writings equally ancient, which it would have been impossible to have deciphered, owing to their mouldy state, if he had not happened previously, whilst passing through Dublin to have taken copies of the same in the Record Office. - Weld's "Killarney," p.285.

    Smith says of Ardea: "This parish is divided from the half barony of Bearhaven, in the county Cork, by a range of lofty and impassable mountains.  The greater part of it was formerly the estate of the O'Sullivans, whose residence in those parts was at the said castle of Ardea, pleasantly and boldly situated in a romantic manner on a high cliff inaccessible from the sea, commanding an extensive prospect of the river of Kenmare" ['Part of the extensive keep,' says Mr. Bigger, 'has tumbled into the sea'] "a bay thirty miles long and of great breadth, environed with craggy but stupendous mountains.  Towards the bottom of the harbour of Kilmakaloge, which is an inlet of Kenmare river, is also the residence of a branch of the O'Sullivans, called McFineen Duff, near whom lives Mr. Silvester O'Sullivan, whose house is pleasantly situated between two rivulets, which joining soon after, form a considerable stream.  In 1602 a Spanish frigate landed supplies of money and ammunition at this castle, which encouraged some of the native Irish to take up arms, but they were overcome by Lord Barry, Sir G. Thornton, and Sir. R. Wilmot.  The parish, which is entirely the property of the Marquis of Lansdowne, comprises 97 gneeves, or nearly 40,000 acres, consisting chiefly of rocky mountain and bog.  .  .  .  The principal residence is Deireen, the mansion of Peter McSweeny, Esq.  [This is now the charming lodge of the Marquis of Lansdowne.]  "Off the coast is a small island called Dinis, the property of H. A. Herbert, Esq., of Muckross, on which is a cottage with a neat plantation, and immediately adjoining is a fine oyster bed.  On this island are vestiges of a small chapel supposed to have formerly belonged to the Abbey of Muckross; and it is traditionally stated that an establishment existed here for supplying the monks with oysters, the shells of which had accumulated to such an extent as to have been lately used as manure; a considerable quantity of seaweed is collected on its shores and used for the same purpose."  This island is now the home of Henry A. R. Herbert, Esq., junior, who has built a picturesque chalet on this truly romantic sanatorium of the old Irish monks, for such it was if it belonged to the monks of Innisfallen; probably it was given by them to the Friars of Muckross Abbey on account of its oyster beds. - See "Lewis's Topogr. Dictionary."

    Here we saw verified before our eyes the words of the poet:

    "At noise of gliding stream when oft I wont
    On grassy couch to lie, and brood of ducks
    And flocks of fowl o'er flow'ry meadows saw;
    I have known how soon the Muses song inspire
    When still recesses far from town and noise
    Invite - and please alike the meadows sweet
    And the host's face more flattering than the field."
    Digby's "Ranierius, Praed. Rustic.," xii.

    Thus we mused as we gazed on a guest of Mr. Herbert's who in very truth lay "On grassy couch," and we left the rest to his own contemplations or cogitations.

    There was, in the time of Smith and Archdall a romantic little ruin of an ancient priory at the mouth of the bay of Kenmare, called the Abbey of Aghamore.  "This abbey was situated," says Archdall, p. 299, "near the mouth of the river Kenmare, in a small island adjoining the extreme end of parish of Kilcrohan.  This small abbey was founded in the seventh century by the monks of the abbey of St. Finbar, near Cork, for canons regular following the rule of St. Augustine.  The walls, which yet remain, of this ancient abbey, are so beaten by the sea that, in a short time, they will be probably demolished.  At low water the abbey isle joins the main land."  Lewis says that in his time there was a house built by the Marquis of Lansdowne for the priest of the parish at Ardea.

    For a full account of this family of Ardea, see p. 273 of this "History," No. 40, vol. iv., of "Cork Arch. Journal."


    *  It is probable that the Christian names of the family contributed in some measure to assist the memory in this instance.  The account given by the man of his genealogy was as follows: -

    Philip, who first came to Ardea; probably soon after the date of the deed of partition, in 1593.
    Daniel M'Philip.
    Owen M'Daniel.
    Daniel M'Owen.
    Owen M'Daniel.
    Dermod M'Owen.
    Kerry M'Dermod, the Informant.

    Portrait of O'Sullivan Beare
    O'Sullivan Beare.
    (From Portrait in National Gallery, Dublin, and from original in Irish College, Salamanca.)

    In the "MacGillicuddy Papers," p. 83, we see how Sir William Petty got possession of these lands in Kerry:-

    (1)  A coppie of the agree'nt between Sir Wll. Petty, Robert Marshall, Coll' Pretty, Benjamaine Barry, and Capt. Stopford, 1st Jany., 1668.

    Memoranda' itt is agreed that in the steed of Capt. John Blenner Hassett's name, the name of Sr. William Petty shall be inserted into the Certificat of the three Regiments and that then both the Certificat shall pass as they did stand drawne up the last of December, 1668."

    (2)  That what land both the said Certificates doe containe more than fifty-three thousand five hundred and one accers, three rudes and five perches due to Robert Marshall, and twenty-nine thousand five hundred and three due to the said Regiments, being about 31,767 accers, shall be divided between the said Robert Marshall and the said three Regiments, videza: about 20,000 accers to Robert Marshall, and the remaining 11,767 accers to the said three Regiments.

    Item - Itt is agreed that out of the lands past in both the Certificates the said three Regiments are to have the whole parish of Templenoe, containeing 12,769 accers and 3,969 accers out of the parish of Killcroghane, to be cut off by the sub Comrs., next contiguous to Templenoe, soe as the whole remainder is to be to the said Robert Marshall.

    Memorandum that the above mentioned 11,767 acc, hereby allowed to the three Regiments shall ley contiguous to their proportion in Templenoe and Killcroghane, or otherwise as the said parties shall agree, either by value or quantitie of accers.  In witness whereof the said parties have hereunto interchangebly sett their hands this first day of January, 1668.

    WM. PETTY.
    Signed and delivered in the presence of

    This Robert Marshall was a mere "blind," or dummy for Sir William Petty, as we see in the "McGillicudy Papers," p. 106, where Lieutenant-Col. Donogh McGillicuddy says: "Whereas Sir William Pettie, by the name of one Marshal, his servant, hath been in some small matter concerned in yor pettr's estate. - Pettn to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 1674.

    All the lands of the O'Sullivans taken by Sir William Petty in the Cromwellian confiscations were confirmed to his grandson, Lord Shelburne, as can be seen in the following note in "Smith's History," p. 86; and note 20 of this "History," p. 211.

    "Henry E. Shelburn, son of Charles, eldest son of Sir William, had a regrant and confirmation by letters patent of 32,309 acres 3 roods and 10 perches, plantation measure, in the barony of Glancrought; and 21,101 acres, of the same measure, in the barony of Dunkerrin, with an abatement of the quit-rent thereof, all which lands, in the last-mentioned barony, were by patent, 20 July, 1721, erected into the manor of Dunkerron pursuant to his lordship's petition to the King for that purpose."  In this petition Lord Shelburne says: "That the premises were situated in the extreme parts of the kingdom towards the western seas, and in a coarse and mountainous country, and for the most part inhabited by Roman Catholics, who, living very remote from the courts of law and justice, had hitherto acted without any regard to either, and although he had used his utmost endeavours to reclaim them, yet the same had hitherto proved unsuccessful, for want of having a legal form of justice established in that part of the country.  That there were considerable woods on the said tract of ground, which, if preserved, would have been of public use and service to the country; but the situation, the people and their circumstance, being very remote from, and not fearing the law, nor the administration thereof, the said woods were almost destroyed by them.  [They were destroyed by his grandfather, Sir William Petty, as Smith tells us]: "And forasmuch as he (Lord Shelburne) had nothing more at heart than the planting the said country with Protestants, and making the said Papists amenable to law, which he was in great hopes of encompassing if his Majesty would create the said lands into a manor by patent, and grant him and his heirs the franchises of all waifs, strays, court barons, etc., with special power to take cognizance and hold pleas, and all manner of actions for debt, detinue, and trespass, not exceeding £20 on each action."  Shelburne and his blood have passed away and the Catholics remain in those lands to our day, far more numerous than at this time when he intended to hand them and their lands to Englishmen and Protestants.

    This Lord Shelburne died at London, 17 April, 1752, and thus the title and blood of the Cromwellian Petty became extinct in the male line.  Lord Shelburne bequeathed his numerous estates to his nephew, the Honourable John Fitzmaurice, on condition that he would bear the name and arms of Petty.  This nephew, it must be acknowledged, was of the best and purest Anglo-Norman family of Ireland, who had fought and suffered for their religion and country; he took the title of Baron of Dunkerron and Viscount FitzMaurice, 27 Aug., 1751, and by patent, 7 October, of the same year, and thereby showing his, love for the land of his forefathers.  It must be said of this noble family, now created Marquis of Lansdowne, that they sustained the patriarchal traditions of the house of Lixnaw, and were always kind and generous landlords.  Unfortunately, however, for the tenantry, they scarcely ever heard the grievances of their poor people, except through the lying tongues of selfish and interested agents; and hence the frightful misery and poverty that always prevailed, in the past, amongst this down-trodden peasantry of the O'Sullivan's lands of Glaneroughty.

    Smith gives us, the following interesting anecdotes about the Honourable John FitzMaurice, afterwards the Right Honourable Earl of Shelburne, whilst he was high sheriff for the county Kerry in the year 1732: -

    "Near the east end of the river Inny stand the ruins of the parish church, about half a mile from whence are the piers of a foot-bridge, which stood over that river, the arch of which hath lately fallen down.  It was 24 feet wide, and but a yard thick, being only a foot path which was ascended by steps; it was of a considerable height over the river, and built almost semicircular, which gave it the name of the Rainbow Bridge.  What seems very singular is, that it did not stand on any high way: from its narrowness it had more the resemblance of a triumphal arch than a bridge, and was erected over a very deep part of the river; but at what time, or on what occasion, there is not the least tradition in the country.  It is said that some people have been so intoxicated with liquor as to be mad enough to ride over it, which was a dangerous experiment, it being very narrow, and having no battlements.

    "In the year 1732, the Hon. John Fitzmaurice, Esq. (afterwards the Right Hon. the E. of Shelburne), who was at that time high sheriff of the county, held his sheriff's court on this bridge, the arch of which was then standing, as it was also for some years after.  But it being situate on no public road, the grand jury did not think proper to raise money for its support, so that it is since fallen to ruin.  However, it is strange that some lover of antiquity did not collect a small sum to keep this Irish Rialto, as it might be justly termed, in repair.

    "When the above John FitzMaurice was high sheriff of this county in 1732," says Smith, again, "he received the judges of assize at the bounds of the county in a most magnificent and splendid manner, the particulars of which are as follow; two running footmen led the way, being cloathed in white, with their black caps dressed with red ribbons, and red sashes with deep <missing text>.  Four grooms leading 4 stately horses with their caparisons, their manes and tails dressed with roses of red ribbons.  A page in scarlet laced with silver, bearing the sheriff's white rod.  The high sheriff in scarlet, his sword hanging in a broad shoulder belt of crimson velvet, covered with silver lace, mounted on a very beautiful stone-horse, having a Turkish bridle with reins of green silk intermingled with gold, the caps and housings of green velvet, that was almost covered with gold lace, and bordered with a deep gold fringe.  Two trumpets profusely laced with silver.  Twelve livery-men in the colours of the family, mounted on black horses from 20 to 40 £ price, with long tails which, as well as their manes were decked with roses of red ribbons; the caps and housings having a centaur in brass, which is the crest of the Fitz-Maurices.  They had short horseman's wigs of one cut, with gold-laced hats; their back-swords hung in broad buff belts; their cravats or stocks were black, fastened with two large gilt buttons behind: each had a brace of pistols and a bright carabine hanging in a basket on his right side, with a stopper in the muzzle of red mixed with white, that looked not unlike a tulip: his riding coat with a scarlet cape and gilt buttons was rolled up behind him.  The E. of Kerry's gentleman of the horse single mounted on a very fine black horse.  The steward, waiting gentleman, and other domestics of L. Kerry.  The cavalcade were all of the Earl's own family, and mounted out of his own stable to the number of 35.  After these followed the gentlemen of the county who were very numerous, with about twenty led horses, with field cloaths attending them.  But the day proved very unfavourable, and all this pomp and gallantry of equipage was forced to march under a continued rain to Listowell, where the high sheriff had prepared a splendid entertainment of 120 dishes, to regale the judges and gentlemen after their fatigue: which it seems they greatly wanted, for the roads were so heavy and deep, by reason of the excessive rain, that the judges were forced to leave their coaches, and betake themselves to their saddle-horses.  But this repast was short, for tidings being brought that the river Feal was swelling apace, they soon removed in order to pass over it, while it was fordable."  We are certain the respected high sheriff of the county of Kerry for this year - D. C. Coltsmann, Esq., J.P., D.L. - will not seek the honour and expensive luxury of this pageant to show his obsequiousness to her Majesty's judges on circuit during his term of office.

    Smith holds that Dunkerron Castle was erected by the O'Sullivans, but we are absolutely certain it was built by Carew, as we see this clearly stated in the "Annals of Innisfallen," as already given at p. 20, vol. v., note 41 of this "History."  It gives its name to the barony which extends from the head of the river of Kenmare to the Bay of Ballinskelligs, above twenty Irish miles in length and nearly sixteen in breadth.

    Smith, who published his work on Kerry in 1750, tells us that: "In all this tract there is neither fair nor market, church in repair, or resident parson of the Established Church." - "Smith's Kerry," p. 89.

    "Besides the ruins of the castle of Dunkerron," he says, again, "there is in the parish of Templenoe the ruins of another castle called Cappanacushy, which belonged to a younger branch of O'Sullivan More's family, and is said to have been built by MacCrath, brother to O'Sullivan More, from whom the MacCraths of this place had their name.  The family of the MacCrehans (Crohans), of Iveragh, are also descended from the O'Sullivans.  This family of Capanacushy, in defect of heirs in O'Sullivan More's house, always succeeded to his lands, a branch of which family still resides near this castle," pp. 89, 90.  (See our author on these families, p. 209, vol. iv., No. 39).

    He adds in a note on Dunkerron Castle: "This place, from its name and other circumstances, seems to be of great antiquity.  Dun, in Phoenician and Irish signifies a hill (or rather a fort). . . There are still to be seen between the remains of the castle and the sea the foundation walls of several old buildings, which, together with the antiquity of the name, and its being mentioned in some copies of Ptolemy's maps, besides the tradition of the country, all seem to point out its having been anciently a place of some note" (p. 89).

    Smith concludes his chapter on this barony by the following just and philanthropic remarks: "The want of a sufficient number of people in these southern baronies is a great detriment to their further improvement. . . It is our true interest to advance industry, agriculture, the linen manufacture, and other useful arts; to increase the people by indulgence, rather than lessen their number by tyranny and oppression; to instruct the ignorant and employ the poor, and afford them the means of living in a more comfortable manner, as to houses, cloaths (clothes), and food, which must add strength, riches, and improvement to the landed interest.  These are designs equally profitable to all."  This reminds me of a beautiful remark made by "the Good Lord Kenmare," in a most interesting work, written for his son in 1772, on this subject: "There is not that spot on the globe, where a landlord of a benevolent and humane mind may render more real service to humanity and indulge a disposition (of generosity) at less cost to himself (than in Ireland)."  And he clearly shows how the poor people can be thus aided by factories for stocking-weaving, kntting, pottery, tanneries, car and cart making, cooperage, turning, basket-making, etc., which will provide them with lucrative employment: (1) By giving the tanneries the bark at a lower price than they get it elsewhere; (2) by advancing small sums to artizans, and giving the timber on credit, to help their first establishment.  "Any expense," he adds: "such attempts may occasion may justly be charged to the account of the best directed charity, as the present supineness (laziness) and want of employment of the lower class of people is productive of thieving, drunkenness, oppression, and every other consequence of beggary."  His words on preserving and increasing the inhabitants on his estates deserve to be written with letters of gold: "The landlord should be cautious (careful) to prevent depopulation.  Humanity coincides with one's interest in this, as want of inhabitants is an absolute bar to the linen manufacture, tillage, and every scheme of essential use to the Kingdom."  No wonder he was called "the Good Lord."  As to the way he treated his tenants we give three examples from his "Notes for each farm of the estates - "Knockaderry : This is another subdivision I set to the elder son of Darby Curtayne (great-great-grandfather of Mr. James Curtayne, of Belleville), my favourite tenant, who has covenanted to reside on it . . . I thereby show my regard to the memory of an industrious tenant wch (which) will be no small motion (incentive) to others to imitate his example."

    "This land, like the former (Keeliegh), had neither ditch, drain, nor tree on it at the commencement (of his tenancy), so that any improvement that appear will be his performance, and by that my family will be able to judge how far he'll deserve their patronage" (p. 122).  This is now the rich and well drained land around Farranfore.

    "Keeliegh: I set to Mr. Mahony, of Dunloe, for considerably more than the whole had been set to the Herberts, of Currens, who, during a tenancy of more than sixty years, had never made the least improvement on it."

    "The present tenant is a very honest, substantial man, who, after having lost his holdings at Dunler, and others he had under Ld. Shelburne" (having been evicted, I suppose, like so many others on that estate), "was at a loss where to place his stock, if I had not accommodated him with this farm, as I did before with Knockduragh.  His improvements on it will decide hereafter how far he and his children will deserve the friendship and protection of my family," etc.

    The third is the admirable recommendation for poor cottiers who then had the large mountain farms divided amongst them: "Such people should be encouraged to settle on them, even at the expense of advancing them moderate sums of money, to enable them to stock and till them, and building houses for them," p. 138.

    Would that these humane and wise commendations of Smith and the "Good Lord" had been put into practice on every estate in Ireland during the last 150 or 200 years, then we would not have had the hundreds of thousands deported to America to die in the fever-ships of the famine years, or become the victims of the poisoned atmosphere of the "Lansdowne Wards" of New York!  Neither would we have before our eyes the "realities of Irish life" in those deserted hearths and ruined homesteads - monuments of shame and inhumanity - that strike the eye of the tourist at every side in this country, which, indeed, have caused all the heartburnings between the peasantry and the landowners of our day in Ireland.  As to the woods that Lord Shelburne complains were destroyed by the Irish peasantry, Smith, who lived near the time of Petty, says: "It seems a little surprising that Sir William Petty should not have had more care in his life time taken to preserve his woods by copseing them, as they were cut down" (by himself) p. 95.  It is a well-known historical fact that Sir William Petty cut down all the wood of the barony to provide fuel for his smelting furnaces.  All the valuable suggestions made by the "Good Lord" have been put into effect in our day by the Congested Districts Board in every part of Ireland.  Under their prudent and fostering care we have the cooperage, the knitting classes, the Agricultural Banks, the wood work; and to these they have added poultry, bees, crochet and lace work, with fishery tackle and other industries, which are keeping alive thousands on the seaside and mountain districts, who heretofore, were ever living on the verge of starvation.  Then we have, in Killarney, the new and lucrative "Art and Craft" factory, which has given the means of subsistence, and even competence, to hundreds of families of the town, and provided a never-failing source of work for the young men who have learned those trades, and are now well-paid mechanics in London, America, and the Colonies.  If all this had been done a hundred years ago, what a source of revenue would it have been for the starving population of this and every town in Ireland?  The "Good Lord" easily foresaw all this, and hence his unceasing advice in this work is:- "Factories for the town, and aid and generosity for the industrious peasant."

    We see in the following leader of the "Dublin Freeman's Journal," of Dec. 17. 1895, how admirably the chief land inspector of the Congested Districts' Board Mr. Henry Doran, put in practice these philanthropic suggestions of the "Good Lord Kenmare," on the Ffrench estate, for the poor cottiers of Mayo:- "There is no man living who might not feel an honest pride in the address presented to Mr. Doran on the conclusion of his operations in regard to the purchase and migration scheme just completed by the Congested Districts' Board.  The address was the greater honour from the fact that every tenant included in the scheme took part in the presentation.  It is couched in terms of praise and gratitude all the more remarkable from the circumstances under which it is presented.  Mr. Doran, who has distinguished himself on Clare Island and elsewhere for his remarkable administrative powers, had to discharge very arduous and very difficult duties, half ministerial, half judicial, in regard to the Ffrench estate.  To escape complaint in such a case might be esteemed no slight success.  Mr. Doran secured the warmest approval.  The address was, in truth, an honour both to the givers and the recipient.  Mr. Doran struck the right note in his reply when he declared:- 'I observe with feelings of pride which I hope is pardonable that every one of the seventy-seven tenants on the property have subscribed their names to this address.  This is more than I could expect, considering that seventeen of the tenants got no increase of land, and others did not get what they thought they were entitled to.  Although some are disappointed at the slight advantages they derived, all of you hold me blameless.  This generous action of yours is a manifestation of the high-minded spirit which prevails amongst you; and I feel bound to express my deliberate opinion that to this spirit more than anything clse is due the success of the Ffrench Estate Migration Scheme.'  Of course there were croakers and sneerers at the inception and during the preparation of the scheme who were liberal of their jibes and their prophecies of disaster.  Mr. Doran puts their prophecy and counsel on record in his reply.  'I was somewhat embarrassed,' he says, at being told by many people, who ought to have known you, that the project was doomed to be a failure, because you would prove unmanageable and do nothing but fight over the partition of the lands.  In fact, I was seriously advised to recommend the Board to convert St. Brendan's House into a police barrack before attempting to stripe the demesne.'  He puts on record, too, how completely those prophecies of evil were falsified, and the success of the scheme secured by the action of the tenants.  He truly declares that it was not merely their own interests they subserved by the kindly forbearance and moderation they displayed in carrying out loyally and uncomplainingly the provisions of this experimental scheme.  They have earned the gratitude of other tenants who make claim for similar assistance.  The experiment has been an unqualified success.  It has not cost the Government one penny beyond office expenses.  Your resources are considerably improved.  You have demonstrated what a great deal people circumstanced as you can be got to do to help themselves, and what good can be done in these matters, even within what I may call commercial lines.  Your success implies a command for further experiments of a like character; and for this you are entitled to the approbation of a large body of your countrymen, who look to migration as the only substantial remedy for the permanent improvement of the present helpless condition of the small landholders in the inland congested districts."  It is a singular fact that this Mr. Doran is a great-grandson of a tenant of the "Good Lord Kenmare," who says of him, in the year 1772: "Edmond Scanlan, my land-steward, took this land (fossa) from me when it was entirely overrun with furze, not a bush nor a tree on it; he has now a neat cottage on it, a well-thriving orchard; the road which runs thro' it, planted on either side, with various sorts of trees, as it lies on the side of the Lake; it is one of the prettiest farms on the estate."  Mr. Doran's remark, that "the work was accomplished without loss to the Board," is what we see repeatedly expressed in the "Good Lord's" admirable instructions to his son; for he unceasingly exhorts him to prevent depopulation by every means in his power, as "one's own interest as well as humanity' must impel every landlord to this act of justice and charity.  This we see exemplified in his own life, as the estate doubled, and, in most cases, trebled in value, during his time.

    It seems that the Duke of Ormond was obliged to disgorge some of the lands robbed from the O'Sullivans, as we see in the following surrender to the MacGillicudy of the Reeks:


    For Collonell MacFynine, Lt.Coll' MacGillicuddy, and Mr. Teige Mahony, or either of them, in the County of Kierry - Thomas Page.

    I have thought fitt hereby to give notice that I doe wave the possession of those lands that have of late been enjoyed by me in the Baronyes of Dunkerran and Glannoroughtye, and Countie of Kierry, and shall hereafter expect to receave onely the cheifries yt (that) are due to me out of them.  And that I doe leave the lands themselves to be possessed by such persons to whom the same are, or shall be, adjudged to belong, by his Majtie's Comrs. appointed for executing the acts of settlemt.  Whereof you are to acquaint all persons concerned.
    Your loveing frind,             

    Dublin Castle, the 27th of Mach, 1668.  Copia vera.
    Accquittances of Ter: Mahony for rentes oute of Karhuebegg, etc., for his Grace the Duke of Ormond.

    Received to ye (the) use of his Grace ye Lord Duke of Ormond, out of ye lands of Carhuebeg, Ards, Ffarrenagatt, and Tynaskarty ye sum'e of two pound ster', beinge ye remainder of ye whole yeares rent due to his s'd Grace for ye yeare endinge att May, 1665.  I say re'd the 3rd of May affores'd.

    I doe acknowledge to have received of Donnogh McAuliffe to ye use of his Grace ye Lord Duke of Ormond, out of ye lands of Carrhuebegg, Ards, Ffarrenagatt, and Tyneskartie, ye sum'e of one pound and fiveteene shillings, being ye remainder of ye whole yeares rent due to his s'd Grace out of ye premisses, endinge att May, 1666.  I say rec'ed ye 14th instante May, as witness my hand.

    Received at and by the hands of Donnogh McAuliffe to ye use of his Grace ye Lord Duke of Ormond out of ye fower plowlands of Carrhuebegg, Ards, Ffarrennagatt, Tynaskarty, ye sum'e of two pounds fower shillings and six pence ster', beinge ye remainder of ye whole yeare's rent endinge att May last, 1668.  I say re'd this 14th instant May, as witnesse my hand.

    Colonel John O'Sullivan, mentioned in last note (40) as a companion of Prince Charles in his heroic struggle for his throne, was an only son of the Cappanacoss branch of the O'Sullivan More.  "His parents," says the contemporary memoir, printed in London, in 1748, "being very desirous of his making a figure in the world . . they spared no expense their small estate would admit to make him a compleat (sic) gentleman. . . . Accordingly, being Roman Catholics, they sent this their only son, at the age of nine years, to Paris, the best place in the world for the education of youth, not only for the sake of cheapness and the excellent methods the French have of teaching children, but on account of the great sobriety of manners, the strictness of morals, and the early notions of religion and piety, which the tutors are remarkably careful to inculcate."  At fifteen years of age young Sullivan went to Rome, where he commenced to study for the priesthood.  His father, who survived his mother, having died at this time, he returned to Ireland to sell his paternal estate.  But having no relations living, or any inducement as a Catholic to settle under the yoke of the Penal Code, he returned to France.  Here, after his arrival, he was recommended to Marshal Maillebois, by whom he was appointed domestic tutor to his son.  It was not long ere the Marshal persuaded him to follow the profession of war, and to attach himself to his person.  The Marshal, who was a bon vivant, left the weight of the war on young Sullivan, who executed his duty so well that he caused great honour to redound on his patron and on himself. . . Our hero did not remain long in France at this time, for we find him in Italy immediately after in a campaign, and the next year he is serving the King of France on the Rhine.  Here he acquired such fame among his Most Christian Majesty's generals, that one of them, in a letter to M. Agueson, says: "Mr. O'Sullivan understood the irregular art of war better than any man in Europe; nor was his <missing text> in the regular much inferior to that of the best general then living."  He next entered the service of the Stuarts.  James III. thus writes respecting him from Rome, March 23, 1745, to Prince Charles, in France: "I am glad to find O'Sullivan is now with you.  When a gentleman is capable of such detail and drudgery as that of family expenses, you will find it both of ease and advantage to you, because you can depend upon him, and he can act either with more franchezza and less sugezzione than one of inferior rank; and, on all accounts, it behoves you much not to outrun your small income."  Charles soon had such an esteem for O'Sullivan that he was never happy but when this agreeable Irishman was with him.  "Indeed," says the memoir which we here summarize, "no one who knew Mr. O'Sullivan can deny his being one of the best-bred; genteelest, complaisant, engaging officers in all the French troops, which in these respects are certainly inferior to none in Europe.  To these external accomplishments were added (and Charles soon perceived them) a sincerity of heart and an honest sentiment and speech tempered with so much good nature and politeness, as (sic) made his conversation and friendship equally useful and agreeable."  O'Sullivan was delighted with Prince Charles, and strove to render him all the service in his power.  Charles, on his part, expected a great deal from the solid judgment, political knowledge, and military skill of O'Sullivan.  "For," continues the memoir, "to the abilities of this gentleman (O'Sullivan) we are chiefly to attribute the success with which the inexperienced Charles, with a handful of raw highlanders, so long maintained a sharp, and, for some time, a doubtful dispute (conflict) with the whole force of his Britannic Majesty, by which he so surprisingly overran (and as far as he pleased) plundered not only the major part of the kingdom of Scotland, but also of a great part of England itself.  But this great spring and first and chief mover of all the Stuart's army motions was unseen by the gross (greater number) of Charles's followers.  O'Sullivan's authority and influence over Charles, as the automatic spring, was so closely concealed that none but the most prying and artful of the highland chiefs, and those that were the most trusted, knew how greatly this gentleman was favoured and confided in both by Charles and by the French Government.  Though, in fact, he was the general (in chief), he never openly acted as such: all his advices were given in secret, and his orders never came directly from himself.  While O'Sullivan did all, Charles appeared as the principal, and in his name was everything transacted."  How the Prince and his father esteemed the valuable services of O'Sullivan we have unmistakable evidence in the correspondence of James and Charles.  The Prince, writing December 19, 1746, after the expedition to Scotland was all over, says to his father: "O'Sullivan showed me the letter your Majesty did him the honour to write to him.  I cannot let slip this occasion to do him justice by saying I really think he deserves your Majesty's favour."  James III. writes to his son, afterwards, in April, 1747: "I am glad to find O'Sullivan is with you," and he adds - "I have made him a knight, since you desire it, and he deserves it, tho' it being against my present rule; but I have desired him not to say when he was knighted, so that the small mark of favour will be of no inconvenience.  I must do him the justice to say, that by all I have heard, or marked of him myself, I am glad you have him about you; and I am persuaded he will serve you with diligence and fidelity, and never give you reason to be dissatisfied with him."  We learn from another letter of James that an outline of the memorable campaigns 1745-6 in Great Britain was drawn out by O'Sullivan.  For James writes on the 2 January, 1748, to Charles: "Edgar will send you by degrees O'Sullivan's papers.  It were a pity that an account of your unfortunate expedition should not be put in writing, and that by a good hand.  But that such a paper should be composed with nice regard to truth and prudence, so as to give you honour, and, at the same time, not to disgust, much less wrong particular persons, who appeared for you on that unhappy occasion."

    O'Sullivan escaped to France before the Prince, and lost no time in proceeding to Versailles and representing there how urgent was the necessity of despatching some vessels to extricate the Prince from his afflicting and dangerous position in Scotland.  Two frigates were immediately ordered for Scotland, under Colonel Warren, of the Irish Regiment of Dillon.  The colonel was accompanied by Charles's late aide-de-camp, Sir Thomas Sheridan's son, Captain Sheridan, and a Lieutenant O'Beirne, likewise in the King's service.  They took him on board, with 23 gentlemen and 107 men from the ranks, at the very same place where he had disembarked about fourteen months before.  So that, in the hour of danger, the last of the Stuarts was saved by his faithful Irish followers  We know no narrative in all history more touching than that of the departure of O'Neill from the Pretender and the heroism of Flora MacDonald in jeopardising her life to save his.  Why the Gaels, Irish or Scotch, endured so much for the Pretender, after all they had already suffered at the hands of those ungrateful Stuarts, is to us incomprehensible.  Certainly the way James I., Charles I., and the immoral Charles II. treated our country deserved nothing of the O'Neills, the O'Sullivans, or of their descendants.  Yet here is an unique historical paradox, in the sceptical and egoistic eighteenth century, where the grandchildren of those who were the oppressed, and the robbed, and the ruined, willingly sacrifice their lives and happiness for the welfare of the descendants of those who were the cause of their forefathers' and their own misfortunes.  This is assuredly the highest perfection of Christian charity.

    Sir John O'Sullivan left a son by his wife, Miss Fitzgerald, daughter of Thomas Fitzgerald and Louisa O'Connor.  This son was named Thomas Herbert O'Sullivan.  He was an officer in the Irish Brigade at the time of the American War of Independence.  On account of a personal assault on Paul Jones, his commanding officer, he was obliged to fly from France to America, where he entered the British army, under Sir Henry Clinton, at New York.  He afterwards left the English army for the Dutch service, in which he died a major, at Hague, about the year 1824, much respected, as he had among his intimate friends the celebrated Prince de Ligne.  This Major O'Sullivan, like his father, was noted as "an extraordinary handsome and elegant person" - as, indeed, have always been all the "blue blood" of the O'Sullivans.  Major O'Sullivan had a son similarly distinguished, John William Thomas Gerald O'Sullivan, born in Ireland, who, after a "romantic career of successful adventure," ended his life in a heroic attempt to carry a rope ashore for the safety of all on board his own vessel that struck upon a rock.  He was previously Consul at the Canary Isles, and at Magador, in Africa.  He was father of the Honourable John Louis O'Sullivan, Minister of the United States to the Court of Portugal from 1864 to 1858, a most amiable and accomplished gentleman and scholar.  He had an elder brother and two nephews, but he is obliged painfully and pathetically to note, in a letter from Lisbon, August 26, 1861: "Of our name in this line I am now the last.  A fatality has seemed to pursue us.  By what sudden end the name has to expire with me, time has yet to show."  I dread however, the early wild life of his ancestors had a great deal to do with it, as we have already remarked on the extinction of the Geraldines and other Irish families (see "History of Muckross Abbey, c. 33).  He mentions the watch of his great-grandfather of 1745-6, and his seal containing his coat of arms, besides the still more interesting portrait of the General, set in gold, and resembling Washington in person, with an uniform in scarlet of blue and gold.  The author of the "Irish Brigade," from whom we have taken this account, says: "This medallion is of too much historical interest for Ireland and Scotland to be left unphotographed."  For assuredly this Sir John O'Sullivan is one of the most illustrious men of the name of O'Sullivan More.  It can be truly said of him and of all his descendants that they were

    Brave men at arms, and friendly out of arms,
    Courteous in peace, in battle dangerous.
    Kind to their foes, and liberal to their friends,
    And, all in all, their deeds historical.
    See "History of Muckross Abbey, c. ix.

    Sir Thomas Sheridan left a son, the Chevalier Michel de Sheridan, or Sir Michael Sheridan, who was an officer in the Irish Brigade.  At the age of twenty-seven, in the year 1742, he entered the Regiment of Dillon, made the campaign of Germany, and was present at the battle of Dettingen in 1743; and the campaign of Flanders in 1744, where he was made a captain.  In 1745 he joined the Prince in Scotland, and after the fatal battle of Culloden he was among the Irish officers who brought away the Prince to France.  In 1746 he was nominated a captain of horse in the regiment of FitzJames, and in 1760 was brevetted as a Maréchal-de-camp-de-Cavalerie, attached to that regiment, and fought in Germany to the close of the seven years' war.  He received the Cross of a Chevalier of S. Louis in 1770, and resided at the Chateau D'Estian, near Beaufort, in Avignon.  The time of his death is unknown.  We are glad to be able to mention the family of Sheridan in these notes, as it is through Mr. Francis Sheridan, of Dublin, as already acknowledged in our preface, that we owe the publication of this "Ancient History of Kerry."  We must also acknowledge our indebtedness to Mr. D. B. O'Sullivan, Vice-Consul, Sierra Leon, descendant of the O'Sullivan Beara, for some very valuable works in our library, from which we have extracted many of these notes.

    The Sheridans are of old Irish or Milesian origin, the family name being noticed in our national annals as early as 1087, at the battle of Connachail, now Cunghill, in the county of Sligo, between Rory O'Connor, King of Connaught, and Aodh O'Rourke, Prince or Chief of West Brefney, or Leitrim, on which occasion among the leaders slain with O'Rourke was the son of Godfrey O'Sheridan.  Sir Thomas Sheridan, the companion and councillor of Prince Charles, the Pretender, was the son of the Honourable Thomas Sheridan, Secretary of State, Privy Counsellor, and Commissioner of Customs in Ireland under King James II.  Henry Sheridan was an ensign in King James' Army List (Dalton, vol. i., p. 12; and "O'Callaghan's Irish Brigade," p. 371 et seq).  We are very sorry to be obliged to add that this Sir Thomas was the grandson of an unhappy pervert, who broke his vow to God to enjoy the passing, sensual pleasures of the world.  He was one of the translators of the Irish Bible for Bedel (see "Ware's Bishop," by Harris, p. 519; and "History of Muckross Abbey, c. 1v., et seq).  The Protestant Bishops of Kilmore and Cloyne, Patrick and William Sheridan, were the uncles of the last Sir Thomas Sheridan.  William Sheridan, Bishop of Kilmore, "was deprived, in the 3rd year of King William and Mary for refusing to take the oath to these Princes . . . although he had absented himself from Ireland to avoid the oath.  He lived afterwards for many years in London, where non-jurors resorted to his house.  He died about the year 1716" (see Harris's "Ware," p. 244).  An Irish spy, named Cap. Bradstreet, in the camp of the "Chevalier," says: "Sullivan was a fat, well-faced man," whereas "Sir Thomas Sheridan was a drooping old man."  The Stuart Prince reposed his greatest confidence in these two and Secretary Murray.

  43. The Rerriters, or Le Ferreters, as the name was spelled in Plantagenet times, seemed to have settled in and around Dingle soon after the Invasion.  The tribute they were bound to pay the Earls of Geraldine was a certain number of Irish hawks, which were then very valuable, when hawking was fashionable.  The chief stronghold of the family stood on one of those rocky promontories to the west of Dingle.  Pierce Ferriter here mentioned was one of our best Irish poets and a brave and distinguished captain in the Cromwellian wars.  Honora Lady Kerry wrote to him in 1641 the fo1lowing letter, in which she tries to dissuade him from joining the Catholic party.  This letter, however, was intercepted by the Cromwellians, and never reached Ferriter:

    To my very Loving Friend, Mr. Pierse Ferriter, at Ferriter's towne, in Kerry:
    Honest Pierse! - (And, I hope, I shall never have reason to call you otherwise) this very daie is one come out of Kerry unto me, that by chance fell into the companie of Florence MacFineen, and the rest of that rebellious crue, ye very daie it they robbed Haly, who tells me yt you promised (as he heard Florence say) to be with them the week following, and to bring a piece of ordnance with you from the Dingell, and joyn with them to take the castell of Traly; but, and I hope in God it is far from your thoughts, for you that have ever been observed to stand upon your reputation in smaller matters, I trust will not now be tainted with so fowle and offensive a crime to God and man - nor give your adversaries yt just cause of rejoicing, and just way for them to avenge themselves on you - nor us that are your friends, that just cause of discontent that would make us curse the daie that ever we saw you.  But I cannot believe any such thing of you, and, therefore, will not take much paines to persuade you, knowing that you want not wit nor understanding enough to conceive and apprehend ye danger, etc., etc. . . .
    Cork, ye last of June, 1641.

    "Here I am settled, and doe intend toe staie, until the time growe quieter, which, I hope in God, will bee ere long, for here is certaine newes of a mightie armie preparing in England to come over."

    "The troubles of 1641," says Archdeacon Rowan, "were not, in the South of Ireland, marked by the extreme barbarities which characterised them in the North.  This probably arose from the fact that a more friendly relation subsisted between the two races in Munster than in other parts of Ireland."  Or, perhaps, because the same families had relatives fighting at both sides.  Thus Colonel David Crosbey's life was saved at Ballingarry by his two nephews, Colonels MacElligot and MacGillicuddy, whose properties he afterwards aided in part to retain for them.  The Catholic party commenced in Kerry under Purcel, Baron of Loughmoe, a distinguished leader (whose heir-general subsequently married into the house of Kenmare, and enriched that noble house by her vast possessions), first raised the standard in the province.  Then the MacCarties, O'Sullivans, MacElligott, the junior branches of the house of FitzMaurice, Hussey, of Castlegregory; Moriarty, of Castledrum and of Ballinacourty (called Dermot O'Dingley), and many others, besides our hero Ferriter, took arms in Kerry, the chief lead being assumed by Florence MacFineen Carty, of Castlelough, commonly called "Captain Sugane"; these are the parties whom Lady Kerry calls "Florence MacFineen, and the rest of his rebellious crew."  We have, however, seen in the "Depositions of Vauclier" that they held that "they fought for the King's prerogative, and that we (the Protestants) were the rebels and traitors . . . and that they had not the liberty of their religion," etc., etc.  Vauclier was exchanged for Captain James Browne, brother of Sir Valentine Browne.  Lord Kerry was governor of the county at the commencement of the insurrection, and committed arms to Pierse Ferriter to raise a company, and then placed Captain Thomas Spring over Castlemaine, from whom it was taken a few days afterwards by Daniel MacCarthy, of Carrigprehane.  He himself, with Lady Kerry and household, first took refuge in Cork, as above, and afterwards retired to England, whence he never returned.  From Cork his lady sent the above letter to Pierse Ferriter when the latter had openly taken his part as leader of the Catholics.  He had on foot 150 or 200 men, of whom 60 or 70 were armed "with good muskets," and the rest with "excellent pikes," and he then sent his followers through the county with passes certifying that he had employed them for the "furtherance and advancing of Catholicism," and requiring that, "neither Irish nor EnglIsh should molest them."  One of these, named Henry Lawrence, an English Catholic, entered the castle of Tralee, showing his "pass," and being "observed to pry about," was detained prisoner.  He boasted that Ferriter was as good a subject as any of them.  This, as we see above, was certainly true, for the Irish leaders fought for their King, at this time, as well as the Protestant party; and, in a few months afterwards, the Catholics were the only adherents of the King, very foolishly, indeed, for themselves, whilst the Protestants sided with the regicide Cromwellians.  Captain Edward Vauclier, about whom we have given so much in our note 36 (p. 28), being a prisoner of Pierse Ferriter, was induced to accompany him in a parley with the besieged, in which they endeavoured to induce Sir Thomas Harris to deliver the castle, on a promise of safe conduct to Cork or Kinsale.  In this parley Pierse Ferriter affirmed that "they meant Sir Thomas of the English no hurt," and that they "took up arms only on account of their religion."  The treaty ended in a three days' truce to bury the dead.  Sir Thomas Harris afterwards died of the effects of the bad water he was obliged to drink in the castle.  There is a full description - but a one-sided and a very prejudiced relation - of this siege of Tralee Castle in "Smith's Kerry," pp. 205-317.  The pass given by Pierse Ferriter to the above Henry Lawrence was as follows: -

    I have employed this gentleman, Mr. Henry Lawrence, upon some special occasions, for furthering and advancing Catholiciom, to go to Tralee, and from thence to Castledrum, or at the Camp; wherefore, I pray, the Irish and English, not to molest or hinder him in body or goods.  Given under my hand this 8th day of Feb., 1641-2.

    It is a very singular fact that when the besieged surrendered, having no hope of aid or deliverance, they were treated with the greatest generosity by the Catholics.  "They received quarter, clothing for themselves and their families, and on delivering up their arms, were allowed to depart to any other English stronghold they might select." - "Kerry Magazine," p. 180, vol. i.  Pierse Ferriter did not experience the same generosity at the hands of the Cromwellians, as we see in our author; on the contrary, they broke faith with him, and had him inhumanly hanged opposite our monastery with Dr. Moriarty, O.P.; Bishop Egan, and Thade O'Connor, according to the "Dirge of John O'Connell":

    Irish script
    Who would not mourn the soul of generosity,
    Pierce Ferriter, the very erudite,
    Teige O'Connor, and Bishop Egan
    Were hanged from a gallows on Sheep-hill (Fair hill).
    Others they transplanted and transported to Jamaica.

    The caoine written by Pierse Ferriter on Maurice FitzGerald, even in Croker's translation, proves him to be a poet of exceptional powers.  We give the greater part of this elegy from the Percy Society's publications of 1842.  This Maurice FitzGerald was the brother of the great-grandfather of Maurice FitzGerald, Knight of Kerry, who married, in 1703, Elizabeth, daughter of David Crosbey, of Ardfert, by whom he had three sons and nine daughters, all married in Kerry.  His eldest son died s. p., and the title devolved on the second son, Robert FitzGerald, a barrister, Member of Parliament, and Judge of the Court of Admiralty in Ireland.  The present Knight of Kerry is his great-great-grand-son.  The death of Maurice of the caoine was the more bitterly lamented by Pierse Ferriter as this Knight of Kerry was a staunch Catholic, whilst his brother, mentioned above, though also a Catholic, was a friend of the Protestant party.

    The allusion to the Florentine knight refers to the tradition of the descent of Maurice FitzGerald from the Gherardini of Florence.  "Gur's voicy lake" is Lough Gur, in Limerick, on whose borders are cromlech, and pagan monuments of all kinds.  "Aina," the banshee, who never wailed for any families who were not of Milesian blood, except the Geraldines, who became more "Irish than the Irish thenlselves."  "For no trader a banshee will utter a cry": traders or merchants were of small account with the descendants of the Normans or old Irish Plantagenets.  It seems that at this time it was the universal opinion that every district belonging to the Geraldines had its own attendant banshee (see "Arch. Journal," 1852, on "Folk Lore," by N. Kearney).  "Glen Fogradh," or the Glen of Warning, lies about a mile and a half north-west of Lough Gur.  The name of "Fogradh," warning or proclamation, arose from the declaration of outlawry against Earl Garret, the last of the Geraldines, at this place, by Elizabeth.  It is now called Glenogry.  "Mogeely" was a castle of the Geraldines situated on the river Bride, two miles west of Tallow, county Waterford.  This was a favourite residence of Thomas, eighth Earl of Desmond, and was obtained by them in the fifth year of Edward IV. from William FitzGerald, Knight of Kerry, in exchange for Ballingolin and Clohier, in Kerry.  This castle and lands were given to Sir Walter Raleigh, who leased them to his agent, named Pyne, whose descendants enjoyed them to our days, the last of whom was a member of Parliament, and whose melancholy and tragic death occurred a few years ago.  The property, like all that of Sir Walter Raleigh's in Ireland, passed to the Boyles, Earls of Cork, now the property of the Duke of Devonshire.  "Dunquin" lies to the west of Dingle.  Its grand and wild cape, Dunmore Head, is the most westerly point of Ireland, and hence the townland is styled "the next parish to America."  The Blasquets, or Ferriter's islands, lie off Dunmore Head, and were held by the Ferriters from the Earls of Desmond, on the conditions given above.  The dark Dun-an-oir is better known as the Fort-del-Ore, where the noble band of Spaniards and Italians were cruelly butchered in cold blood by the English, after having received a promise of quarter from Lord Grey.  "The Ennismore" was the Knight of Kerry's estate near Listowel.  Finnaleun was the old name for Monteagle, on the Brandon chain, according to Crofton Croker.  Lough Gur is four miles in circumference, and has in it three islands, on one of which stand two castles of Desmond.  The people around believe that the Earl is not really dead, but detained by magic in the depths of the lake.  Once in every seven years he rises, at midnight, and rides round it on a snow-white charger with silver shoes. - "Kerry Records."


    My woe and my dulness,
    For ever and ever,
    Oh! Chieftain of Kerry,
    Is that death should us sever,
    That in Flanders you're coffined,
    Far out of my sight,
    Oh! Maurice, brave son
    Of the Florentine Knight!
    Though envy may blacken
    Both fortune and fame,
    No stain, spot, or speck
    Has it left on thy name,
    For with words of bright praise,
    That through time will not fade,
    Was the news of thy death
    To my sad heart conveyed,
    When I heard lamentations
    And sad, warning cries
    From the banshees of many
    Broad districts arise,
    Aina from her closely hid
    Nest did awake
    The woman of wailing
    From Gur's voicy lake;
    From Glen Fogradh of words
    Came a mournful whine,
    And all Kerry's banshees
    Wept the lost Geraldine.
    The banshees of Youghal
    And of stately Mogeely
    Were joined in their grief
    By wide Imokilly.
    Carah Mona in gloom
    Of deep sorrow appears,
    And all Kinalmeaky's
    Absorbed into tears.
    The prosperous Saxons
    Were seized with affright,
    In Tralee they packed up,
    And made ready for flight,
    For there a shrill voice
    At the door of each hall
    Was heard - as they fancied -
    Foretelling their fall.
    At Dingle the merchants
    In terror forsook
    Their ships and their business;
    They trembled and shook;
    They fled to concealment;
    Ah fools thus to fly -
    For no trader a banshee 44
    Will utter a cry.
    The banshee of Dunquin
    In sweet song did implore
    To the spirit that watchcs
    Oer dark Dun-an-Oir,
    And Ennismore's maid,
    By the dark, gloomy wave,
    With her clear voice did mourn
    The fall of the brave.
    On stormy Slieve Mish
    Spread the cry far and wide,
    From steeply Finnaleun
    The wild eagle replied.
    'Mong the Reeks, like the
    Thunder pears echoing rout,
    It burst - and deep moaning
    Bright Brandon gives out.
    Oh chief! whose example
    On soft-minded youth
    Like the signet impressed
    Honour, glory, and truth.
    The youth who once grieved
    If unnoticed passed by,
    Now deplore thee in silence
    With sorrow-dimmed eye.
    O! Woman of Tears,
    Who, with musical hands,
    From your bright golden hair
    Hath combed out the long bands,
    Let those golden strings loose,
    Speak your thoughts - let your mind
    Fling abroad its full light,
    Like a torch to the wind.
      .  .  .  .  .  .  .

    The following stanzas are really beautiful:

    Thy valour shed round thee
    A halo of glory,
    And the deeds of thy sharp sword
    Will long live in story.
    King Philip's own white hand
    That weapon presented,
    In a case set with stones,
    And royally scented.
    Without equal in skill
    On the back of a steed,
    With a pedigree blazoned
    That none could exceed,
    Correct1y recorded
    And carefully penned,
    And full of proud knowledge
    From beginning to end.
    Without ostentation was
    Your bounty to all,
    The prayers of the clergy
    Rose up in your hall,
    The poor there was sheltered
    As soon as the Earl,
    Nor rejected was there
    The disdained outcast girl.
    Behold your reward!
    In the fulness of grief,
    The reward of your wines,
    And your meat and relief.
    For the joy of your feasts
    The sad tribute is paid
    In the full burst of keening
    That for thee is made.
      .  .  .  .  .  .  .

    Ninety priests for thy soul
    Did that sad morning pray,
    In their rich robes of state
    To the close of the day:
    And choiristers chaunted,
    Unnumbered the throng;
    And bishops of tythes
    Chimed in with their song.
      .  .  .  .  .  .  .

    Refreshing thy mirth
    As a light summer shower,
    While firm was thy valour
    As rock 'neath the flower;
    Thy bounty was broader
    Than Ireland's expanse,
    And Europe seemed small
    To thy eagle-eyed glance.
    In thy fall is my fall,
    My life's final blow,
    To lose thee my loss,
    And sore loss I trow.
    Doomed vainly to struggle,
    Without hope to strive,
    Thou art quickly dead,
    And I am dead though alive.

    Thaddeus O'Connor, mentioned in the "Dirge or John O'Connell," was the direct lineal descendant of the O'Connors Kerry, ancient kings of that county, on account of whom it was called, and is still named "The Kingdom of Kerry."  His kinsman, "John of the Wine," chief of the sept, and nephew of "John of the Battles," was hung also by the Cromwellians, at Tralee, in 1652.  Father Morrison, in his "Threnodia," thus speaks of his execution:  "The illustrious John O'Connor, Lord of Kerry and Tract, on account of his adhesion to the Catholic party, and his efforts to draw to it not only his personal followers and all with whom he had friendship, was, after having been seized upon by stratagem by the Protestants, brought to Tralee in that county, and there half-hanged and then beheaded."  Carrigafoile Castle, the principal fortress of the O'Connors, was stormed and taken at this time by the Cromwellians, and five men and six women and a child were hanged from a tree near the castle by those regicides (Cronelly, p, 49).  Thaddeus O'Connor was the only son of Thomas McTeige, fifth lord of Tarbert, who forfeited all his estates in these Cromwellian persecutions, and was obliged to apply to Sir Valentine Brown, the then titular Lord Kenmare, for a home for himself and his grandchildren, David and Conor, sons of the martyr of Killarney.  The noble lord received him most graciously, and bestowed a valuable leasehold property on him and his family in Firies, which was retained by his descendants up to our day.  "This property," says the manuscript from which we copy, "was his only resource, and on a fair night in summer the Lord of Tarbert bade his ancestral home an eternal adieu.  With his daughter-in-law seated behind him on a pillion, her two boys, David and Conor on horseback, in charge of a trustworthy retainer, and all the property that could be saved well packed upon the backs of Kerry ponies, he made his weary journey southward, and, after a few nights of cautious travelling, arrived safely at the spot where his bones were to receive the last repose."  David, his grandson, who was by birthright the head of the sept, from a feeling of pride and independence, resigned the chieftaincy to his brother Conor, and fled to an isolated spot between Kilcar and Cluantarriff.  The hiding place was well preserved from Saxon invasion by impassable bogs on one side and an extensive forest on the other.  There, with a daughter and six sons, he led a Robin Hood's life, or as it was then called a life of a "Rapparee" or "Tory."  From Dermot O'Connor, son of this David, descended James O'Connor, Clerk of the Peace of the county Kerry, who married Elizabeth O'Connell, sister-in-law of the Liberator.  He had seven sons and three daughters.  The fourth son, Daniel O'Connor Kerry, entered the Austrian army, and became successively commandant of Lodi, Prague, and Mantua.  He was also created Baron of the Empire of Austria.  The Rev. Charles O'Connor, his brother, was a well-known and respected priest in the diocese of Dublin in the last years of the middle of this century.  He was deeply versed in the antiquarian lore of his county and family, and wrote some very good poetry on St. Brendan, who was a member of this illustrious family of the O'Connors Kerry.  It is very painful for us to record that this glorious and noble house of the O'Connors have not, at present, an acre of their ancestral estates, which included - from the dawn of history to the Anglo-Norman invasion - the old "Kingdom of Kerry," that is, the vast territory from Tralee to the Shannon, and from Slieve Luachra to Tarbert, as we see in O'Heerin, p. 113 ("O'Donovan's translation"):

    "King of Ciarraigh (Kerry) over the clans of Ciar
    O'Conchobhair (Conor), it is right for him so to be
    Chief of the mede - abounding land,
    From the Strand to the fair-streamed Shannon."

    And the "Book of Rights" tells us that from the King of Cashell:

    "Entitled is the King of Kerry of the hill,
    To twenty steeds - no cause of great evil -
    And three score white cows,
    And three score cups."

    "And," probably, in time of war, he received also:

    "Seven matals (cloaks) with ring clasps of gold,
    Seven horns for carousing,
    Seven steeds not used to falter
    To the King of the Ciarraigh of the Combat."

    See history of this family in "History of Muckross Abbey," c. xvi. to xx.; O'Donovan's "Book of the Rights," p. 76, and a very interesting work on this subject, "The Kingdom of Kerry," by M. Ryle, Dublin.

  44. It is only "blood" can have a banshee.  Business men nowadays have something as good as "blood" - they have "brains" and "brass," by which they can compete with and enter into the oldest families in England and Ireland.  Nothing, however, in an Irishman's estimation can replace "Blue Blood."

  45. McCarthy More.  See a full account of this the most ancient kingly family of the Milesian race in "History of Muckross Abbey," c. ii. to viii.  We give here the arms of the McCarthy More, Earl of Clancare, from the slab formerly over the family vault in Muckross Abbey.

    MacCarthy Mor arms     MacCarthy Mor arms

    This slab is now over the vault of the Falveys.  The O'Donoghues of the Glens occupy the vault of the MacCarthy More, as his direct descendants in the female line.  The arms show us an Irish crown surmounting an earl's coronet; two swords in salter with the points elevated.  Crest: a demi lion rampant issuing from a radiant crown.  These arms differ from those given in Smith's "History of Kerry": - "A stag passant in a shield and under an earl's coronet; from Burke's "General Armoury": "A stag trippant gu, attired and unguled or"; and still more from O'Connors, which we can also give through the generosity of the "Archæological Society."  These two given here ought to have been the authentic arms of the family of MacCarthy More, for we are certain the family must have placed the one used by them in the last century over the resting place of their ancestors, and we cannot imagine how O'Connor, the greatest Irish genealogist of his day, could have published, in the year 1723, when the MacCarthy More's descendants held a foremost position in the county, any arms of this illustrious family but those acknowledged by the head of the sept.  We are, however, inclined to think that in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the last McCarthy More and the celebrated Florence MacCarthy, his son-in-law, used the simpler escutcheon as given by Smith, or the one in Burke's "General Armoury."  This latter was also that of Muskerry, of which Florence MacCarthy was the acknowledged head in his time.

  46. The O'Mahonys.  See an account of this family in "Kerry Records," p. 153 et seq; "O'Ca1laghan's Irish Brigade", pp. 204 to 293; in "O'Connor's Brigade," p. 245; "Dalton's Army List," vol. ii., p. 449; "Last Colonel of the Irish Brigade," pp. 56, 57; "O'Heerin," p. 162 (Donovan's translation).  Our author shows here again his ignorance of Kerry family history when he says that the O'Mahonys received their estates in Kerry from "Cork McLuige," whereas neither the O'Mahonys nor the O'Donoghues were in Kerry until the middle of the eleventh century, when they were driven out of Cork by the Anglo-Norman invasion.  See preface to this "Ancient History."

  47. The O'Donoghues.  See a succinct history of these unconquered and unconquerable chieftains in "History of Muckross Abbey."

  48. The O'Connells were in Kerry lords of Magunihy from time immemorial, for we see them mentioned in "O'Heerin":
    "O'Connell of the slender swords,
    Over the bushy-forted Magounihy
    A hazel tree of branching ringlets
    In the Munster plain of horse hosts
    From the Maing westward is hereditary to them."
    This was long before the English invasion.  "The O'Donoghues drove the O'Connells, in the middle of the eleventh century, westward to Iveragh, where they were seated at Ballycarbery as castellans of the MacCarthy More." -"O'Donovan's O'Heerin," p, 109, No. 596.  See Ross O'Connell's learned notes on his family in "Last Colonel of the Irish Brigade," also "Dalton's Army List," and O'Callaghan's "Irish Brigade," pp. 610, 612, 634, and 638.

  49. This Bishop O'Connell was supposed to have been the author of the Dirge; but this opinion is now exploded, as it is certain that it was written by John O'Connell, a secular priest, and native of Kerry.  Bishop O'Connell was preconized 12th August, 1641.  "He was commended by letters of the Archbishop of Cashel and the Bishops of Cork, Limerick, and Emly for his learning, purity of morals, integrity of life, legitimate and noble birth, and for his labours, nearly thirty years, in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe, where he was vicar apostolic."  This shows that the O'Connells, in 1641, were reputed the nobility of the land.  "Daniel O'Connell, General of the Order of the Capuchins in Ireland."  The Capuchins had not a General, or even a Provincial, living in Ireland at this time.  He may have been a Commissary of the General, for the General always lived in Rome.  This clearly proves that the author was not a priest, for no educated Franciscan could have made such a palpable mistake regarding his own order.  Of the "Learned Jesuit, Maurice O'Connell," I have found nothing in the lives of the eminent men of that illustrious society in Ireland.  The Abbe O'Connell, P.P. of Killarney, at the end of the last century, was a very remarkable man.  See "Last Colonel of the Irish Brigade."

  50. See p. 35 in vol. v. of this "Journal,"
    note 38.

  51. See "History of Muckross Abbey," where we have given a full account of this illustrious Irish family, c. xxix. to xlix.  They were the hereditary admirals of MacCarthy More.  Our author gives only a few words on this famous naval fight between the Irish fleet and the Danish forces under Siteric, at Dundalk (p. 54 in this "Ancient History" in MSS.).  A very full and interesting description of this sea fight can be seen in O'Halloran from an ancient Irish chronicle in verse, at the year 944, vol iii., p. 287.  See also "History of Muckross Abbey," c. xxxix.  O'Heerin thus mentions them, which shows they were the principal chiefs of Corcaduiveny for over a thousand years:

    Irish Script

    Three sub-chiefs are hereditary to them,
    The old land of Ui Duibne of good hosts,
    O'Shea and O'Falvey the man (the hero),
    Seal of reckoning the districts.
    .      .      .      .      .      .      .
    From the Maine westwards is hereditary to them.
    O'Falvey is owner as far as Ventry.

  52. We have given a short relation of this learned family in c. xiv. in our "History of Muckross Abbey."  They, very probably, came to Kerry with the McCarthy More.  They were the hereditary brechons or judges of Munster, as well as of Ormond and Connaught. -McDermott's "Four Masters," p. 130, and O'Donovan's "Topography." of O'Duggan, viii., No. 31; "Miscellany," p. 185; "Four Masters,"; "Index Nominum," p. 215, where they are cited at twenty-eight different years of the "Annals."

  53. He was approved in an audience by the Pope, 15 Nov., 1703.  He was Vicar-General of Ardfert in 1706.  He received his brief only in March, 1720, as the priests of the diocese wished to have Cornelius MacGillicudy, and for this sent two memorials to Rome in 1716 and 1717, in which they say that his family deserve it, "as they preserved the faith in spite of many sufferings and many temptations."  At this very time Denis McGillicudy, the head of the family, declared his conformity to the Established Church, and had his certificate of having taken the oaths "filed in the Rolls Office, 22 July, 1719" - "Denis McGillicudy's certificate for taking ye oathe, Ano D'mi 1718." - "McGillicudy Papers," xxi.  Bishop Denis Moriarty died, aged 85, in 1737.  In 1722 he contested the right of presenting to the parishes of Killarney and Kilcummin by Lord Kenmare. -"Brady's Bishops," vol. ii., pp. 60 and 61.

  54. Bishop O'Sullivan was recommended by Jacobus R., 21 Feb., 1739.  His brief was dated Ap. 29, 1739.  Dingle parish was assigned 14 July, 1739, as it had been held previously by his predecessor.  Idem.

  55. Bishop William O'Mara, appointed Nov., 1743; translated to Killaloe Feb. 23, 1753.

  56. Nicholas Madgett, appointed Feb. 23, 1753; died in 1774.  He lived in a narrow lane off Strand Street, Tralee.  It is recorded that this "Palace" was sold for £12!

  57. "Bagg-gammon."  See p. 260, vol. iv., this "Journal."

  58. O'Donoghue.  We have given a succinct history of these unconquered and unconquerable chieftains in the "History of Muckross Abbey," c. xxiii., xxiv., et seq.  "Geffry O'Donoghue, here mentioned, was the great-great-grandfather of the late O'Donoghue of the Glens, M.P., father of the present O'Donoghue of the Glens, now living in Dublin.  The poems of Geffry O'Donoghue are yet cited by the peasantry of Glenflesk, and his eccentric life has been the theme of many curious old legends among the Irish-speaking population of this district.

  59. Pierse Ferriter.  See Curry's "Materials of Irish History," where he gives the rank and privileges of these Irish poets in Celtic Ireland, p. 3.

  60. "The Irish are the most hospitable of men, and the highest compliment you could pay them is to visit their houses without any invitation, or to accept one where it is offered." - Stanihurst, p. 44.

    "Hospitality was so cultivated by the Irish that, besides the elegant munificence of the cities in the entertainment of foreigners, every nobleman's or gentleman's house in the country might be considered as so many hotels, where all travellers were welcome, and gratuitously supported." -Speed, "Cambrensis Eversus," Kelly's translation, vol. ii., page 243.

    "The Hospitaller, an officer, in Ireland was selected from the nobility.  The candidate for the office should be possessed of seven villages and seven herds, each herd consisting of one hundred and twenty oxen.  He should also have seven ploughlands, and his house so situate that there might be access to it from four high roads.  The spit before his fire was never unprovided with a sheep, an ox, and a pig, ready at all hours to be served up for every person that came.  The same number of animals were slaughtered and dressed fit at a moment's warning to be cooked in the pots. The same number were also kept at hand ready for the butcher.  The entertainment was fixed by law, for every order of the people, and if there was the slightest deficiency, the hospitaller (Irish Script) was punished, instantly, by fine; the curtailment of his privileges being always in proportion to the injury inflicted on his guest.  Different kinds of drink were served up in different vessels: wine in glass; water in copper; whey in silver; mead in wood, and milk in wood of fig tree.  There were, according to Keating, ninety of those establishments assigned to Connaught, ninety to Ulster, ninety-three to Leinster, and 1,030 in Munster." -Idem, 5. 245, and O'Donovan's "Four Masters," A.D. 1225, p. 218.  Hardiman says they had an allowance of 480 acres for this purpose. -"Statutes of Kilkenny," pp. 4 and 5.

  61. This shows that whiskey was known long before the end of the last century, year 944, vol. iii., p. 287.  See also "History of Muckross Abbey," c. xxxix.

  62. This is, indeed, a very remarkable circumstance, if true; for those places, if we except Tralee, Bantry, and Valentia, are all wild, desolate, or impoverished seaside hamlets.

  63. See p. 48.


    The name of Le Brun (Browne) stands eleventh on the Roll of Battle Abbey.  The first ancestor of Lord Kenmare in Ireland was Sir Valentine Browne, of Crofts, in Lincolnshire, who was afterwards Auditor-General in Ireland in the time of Queen Mary, A.D. 1555.  He died in 1567.  His son, Sir Nicholas Browne, got 6,000 acres of the confiscated estates of the Geraldines.  In 1588 he also obtained of Donald McCarthy More, Earl of Clancare, a grant of various castles, towns, lands, etc., in the County of Desmond, of which he had, in 1612, a confirmation from the Crown, "at Cosmauge, in Desmond; the manor, castle, and town of Molahiffe; the castle of Molan, the country of Onagh, O'Donoghue More, the manor and site of the castle called Rosse O'Donoho, the church and town of Killarney, with the lough of Lough Lean and the islands of Innisfallen and Muckrush, with several other islands therein: all late in the tenure of Rory O'Donaho More" (which country of Onagh contains fifty quarters of land, at the rate of forty acres to the quarter), with fishing, fairs, markets, courts, etc.

    Sir Valentine Browne here mentioned was the grandson of this Sir Valentine, the founder of the family, by his son Nicholas, married to Julia, daughter of O'Sullivan Beare, and who died in 1616.  Sir Valentine, colonel of infantry in James' army, was grandson of the daughter of the Earl of Desmond, and third baronet of the family.  "Through her the Kenmare family are the only direct representatives of the great name of the Geraldines" (Archdeacon Rowan).

    His officers were: - Captains: Sir Patrick Trant, lieut.-col.; Murphy, Archdeacon, William Reeves, Browne, McAuliffe, Daniel Donovan, MacMahon, Barrett, Moore, O'Connor, Christopher Fagan, Le Chevalier Hurly, Grenad.  Lieutenants: Pierce, McGillicudy, Archer, Plunket, Thomas Carter, Roche, Murphy, Wolf, Barrett, Goulde, McDonnell, Garrett Neagle.  Ensigns: Power, McGillicudy, Callahan, Goulde, Mahony, McAuliffe, Dooly, Barrett, Nagle, McDonnell.

    Sir Valentine had married Jane, only daughter and heiress of Sir Nicholas Plunket, county Meath, by whom he had five sons and four daughters, his eldest son being Col. Nicholas.  Sir Valentine died in 1694.  He directed by his will to be buried "in the monument himself had built some years past in the church of Killeen; or if he died in the county Kerry or near it, with his own dear, affectionate wife, Jane, Lady Kenmare, in the parish church of Killarney, with his parents and other relations."  His son here mentioned, Col. Nicholas Browne, was sheriff of Cork in 1687 and 1690, and Representative of Kerry in 1689.  In 1664 he married Helen, daughter of Thomas Browne, of Hospital.  By this marriage the properties of both branches of the family were united.  Though the Hospital property was attainted with his other lands, his wife received £400 per annum for her life.  Col. Sir Nicholas (Lord Kenmare) died at Ghent, 1720, leaving four daughters and one son.


    Captains: Colonel Nicholas Browne, George Trapp, lieut.-col.; Dermott McAuliffe, major; Wm. Lombard, Edmund Ferriter, Darby Grady, Wm. Murphy, Richard Barry, Art O'Keiffe, William Heas, James FitzGerald, Dudley Fltzgerald, Thady Callaghan.  Lieutenants: Cor. Callaghan, Daniel McAuliffe, James Cogan, Dermott Keaghley, Arth Nagle, John Browne, Maurice Murphy, Garrett Barry, Art O'Keiffe, Wm. Heas, Edmund FitzGerald, James Heas, Callaghan McCallaghan.  Ensigns: Geoffrey Donoghue, Owen Callaghan, Thos. Gold, Wm. Foulne (Foley?), Teigue Carty, James Ryordan, John Murphy, P. Dermott, Cor. O'Keiffe, John Hugherin, James Roche, Dermott Ryardon, John McCallaghane.  Dale, quartermaster; Rev. - Browne, chaplain; Callanan, surgeon.

    In 1798 Valentine, grandson of this Sir Nicholas Browne (Lord Kenmare), was created Baron of Castlerosse and Viscount of Kenmare.  In 1800 he was advanced to the Viscounty of Castlerosse and Earldom of Kenmare.  He died in 1812.  He had issue by his second wife, daughter of Michael Aylmer, of Lyons (1) Valentine, (2) Thomas, who married a daughter of Edmund O'Callaghan, county Clare, by whom he had a son and two daughters; (3) William, who married a daughter of Thomas Segrave, and (4) Michael, who was wounded at Waterloo, an died in 1825, leaving two daughters.

    Valentine, son of Thomas and Miss O'Callaghan, is the present representative of this truly Catholic and noble house of Kenmare.  He has issue Lord Castlerosse and Lady Charles Douglas.  Lord Castlerosse has three sons and two daughters by the Honourable Miss H. Baring, daughter of Lord Revelstoke, scil., (1) Dorothy Margaret, b. January 1, 1888 (?); (2) Cicely Kateleen, b. November 6, 1888; (3) Valentine Edward Charles, b. May 29, 1891; (4) Maurice Henry Dermot, b. July 25, 1894; (5) Gerald Ralph Desmond, b. December 20, 1896.  Lord Castlerosse is also colonel of the "Kerry Infantry" in our day.

  65. This Roger McElligot commanded a Kerry regiment in England under James II. ("Dalton's Army List").  He was afterwards Governor of Cork, and sustained a siege against Marlborough for five days.  He surrendered with five thousand men, who were all made prisoners of war.  He was kept a prisoner in London Tower for four years, and was exchanged in 1697, and permitted to go to France.  He there became colonel of the regiment of Clancarty, and very probably died in Austria (see "Dalton's Army List," vol. ii., p. 735)  There were three castles belonging to his family in BallyMacElligot: Carrignafeela, Arabella, and Bernagrillagh.  In 1613 the lands of Ulick MacElligot, attainted, were given to Sir. C. Roper (see "Dalton's Army List," vol. ii., p. 735).

  66. Slieve Mish is only 2,200 feet, and in our days is not the most remarkable hill in Kerry.  As to these legends about it and the other places here mentioned, we need make no remark as to their absurdity and the credulous folly of the author.  They are generally taken from "Keating's History of Ireland."

  67. Brandon Hill rises to a height of 2,000 feet.

  68. Mangerton is higher than Gulaba, it is 2,754 feet above sea level.

  69. "Punch Powl," now called the Devil's Punch Bowl.

  70. Caran Tual, or Gheran Tual, is the highest muuntain in Ireland, though Mangerton was formerly believed to be higher.  It is the highest peak of the McGillicuddy's Reeks, and is 3,410 feet above the level of the sea.

    The McGillicuddy family are the descendants and only representatives of the O'Sullivan More.  See "McGillicuddy's Papers," by M. Brady.  In 1691 Col. Denis McGillicuddy was appointed, under sign-manual of James II., to be commander-in-chief of all his forces in the town and. county of Cavan. -See p. 20, infra.

    Dennis of Carhuebeg (see p. 20), afterwards a colonel in the army, married, 1641, Marie, youngest daughter of Daniel O'Sullivan, alias the O'Sullivane More, of Dunkieran, and had issue Cornelius and Daniel; the latter died vita Patris, and had married Lucretia, daughter of Mynheer Derrick von Dachelaer (Holland), by whom he had Denis, Dermod, Philip, Frank, an officer in the Limerick garrison in 1691; John, and Inez, married to John Anketell, of Farrahy.  This Col. Dennis made his will on the 11 of April, 1695, and he died in this year or 1696.

    Dennis of Carhuebeg, eldest son of Captain Daniel (who was then colonel in the Prince of Orange's army), married, 26 Feb., 1717, Anne, daughter of Cap. John Blennerhasset, of Killorglin.  Their children were Dennis, Cornelius, John, Philip, Avis Catherine, Elizabeth, Mary.  This Dennis died in 1735, intestate and unmarried, at the age of 17 years.  Cornelius, eldest son of Dennis McGillicudy and Marie O'Sullivan More, succeeded to the family estates on the death of Dennis in 1695 or 1696.  He served as a captain in King James' army, and was Member of Parliament for Ardfert in 1689.  He was included in the Articles of Limerick, and took the oaths to their majesties in 1694.  Tbere is a curious and historical letter in the "McGillicudy's Papers" about him from his medical attendant, which proves how careful these old Irish noblemen were to observe tbe laws of the Church, which was then banned by the infernal laws of the Irish Orange Parliament: -Dr. H. Gibbon "sends a cooling and lenitive lectuary" to the McGillicudy, and adds: "Here is noe manner of news: we expect too (sic) morrow's post will bring a sure acct. of peace or no peace; I hope you have heard a Long Mass, this being the last day for any of yor clergy yt has not taken ye Oaths, which I believe you have an acct. of Long agoe.  I am, yors as before.

    Ego infrascriptus Medicus Doctor, omnibus quorum inter est, aut interesse poterit, me examinasse temperaburam nobilis et illustrissime Domini Cornelius (Cornelii?) McGillicudy, eamque esse debilem, valetudinariam, et superannuam, quapropter sentio eumdem Dominum non tenere Jejunare, non solum hoece praesenti quadragesima, sed etiam in posterim durante vita, nullabenus tenetur jejunare propter evectam actatem.  In cujus rei fidem et testimonium subscripsi, die ultima February (ita), 1709."

  71. This road is mentioned by this Lord Kenmare in his private instructions for his son in a work already cited in this "Ancient History of Kerry."  He was called, and was indeed, the "Good Lord Kenmare."  He justly considered the opening up of this country by this road one of the best works of the estate, and so it was, as his agent and the inhabitants acknowledged.  Hence it is here mentioned as a remarkable instance of his goodness and charity towards his tenants.

  72. The first doctor in Erin, says McFirbis, was
    Capa, for the healing of the sick,
    In his time was all powerful.

    According to an ancient authority: "Eaba, the female physician, who accompanied the Lady Ceasair, was the second doctor; Slanga, the son of Partholon, was the third; and Fergua, the grandson of Crithimbel, was the fourth."  See also for the doctors of the Firbolgs and the doctors of the Tuatha de Danaan, Curry, p. 221.  There are several learned treatises on the medical profession in Irish MSS. now, we believe, in the Royal Irish Academy among the O'Reilly MSS.  Mr. Barron gives them thus: -

    1. Causes of Diseases and mode of treatment.
    2. Tracts, Surgical and Physiological.
    3. Cord. Valer. Dispensatory, with a medical tract, transcribed 1592.
    4. Diseases and their treatment.
    5. Silan de Nigr on Almazor, a botanical and medical tract, evidently from the Spanish.
    6. Treatment and Cure of Palsies, Apostems, and Dropsies, with an account of Plants and their uses.
    7. Medical and Botanical Miscellany, large folio.
    8. Treatise on Medicine, quarto.
    9. Donoch Og O'Hickey's transcript of medicine.  He was ancestor of O'Hickey of Killelton, whose ancestors were hereditary physicians of the O'Briens.  It appears from O'Hickey's work that the circulation of the blood was known in Ireland, in a MSS, of 1432, two centuries before Harvey's discovery.

  73. His poem is translated.  It would seem from the words of our author that he was not a priest, though his translator holds he was a bishop. -"Ireland's Dirge, by Most Rev. John O'Connell, D.D., Bishop of Kerry, 1704," by Martin A. O'Brennan, LL.D.  There was no Catholic bishop in Kerry in 1704.  Dr. Aencas Lyne was Vicar-Apostolic of Aghadue, 1700 to 1709.  Denis Moriarty was Vicar-General of Ardfert in 1706, and was approved by the Pope Nov. 15, 1703, but was not appointed until March, 1720.  Hence "Dr. John O'Connell, Bishop of Kerry," could not have written this work.  See also
    Note 49.  In this note I have said: "I have found nothing in the lives of the eminent men of that illustrious society about the learned Jesuit, Maurice O'Connell," mentioned in the text.  Since then, however, my learned friend, Sir Ross O'Connell, has given me the following note which he received through his uncle, D. J. O'Connell, Esq., from Father wilde, of the "Jesii, Rome, A.D. 1859: "L. and VI.  Fr. Maurice O'Connell, born of a noble race.  The annual letters from 1671 to 1674 shew how powerful this father was in word and work, in so much that he might be called 'The Thaumaturgus' of this island.  Kerry appears to have been the theatre of his apostolic labours.  He was truly an eye to the blind and a foot to the lame and the father of the poor.  Like his blessed Master, he went about doing good, and like Him he was outraged and persecuted.  He was living July, 1675; sexagen and major."  "C, and IV. Connell, Maurice, recently arrived from Rome in the latter part of 1648, and was stationed at Ross." - Taken from the "Collectanea Illustrata," Biography of the Scotch, English, and Irish Jesuits in the library of the Jesii at Rome.

  74. See O'Connor's Ecclogue, "Arch. Journal," 1898, p. 259, and "History of Muckross Abbey," c. xix., where he says:
    "Nor shall I see you, Curragh Can Wee -
    Full often have I made a song for thee -
    Lest some disaster shall attend my life,
    My tender children, or my loving wife."

  75. To the eternal disgrace of Kerry a monument has not been erected here to the memory of this last of the Great Geraldines, who fell fighting for his faith and country.

  76. There were no asylums here then.  A curious fact happened in the case of one of these madmen, who came down here from the North.  He was passing by Faha Court, quite naked, and having been followed by Mr. Falvey, with gun in hand, the fright of being shot down actually restored him to his senses.  Years afterwards, this Mr. Falvey travelling in the North of Ireland accidentally met this man, who knew his deliverer, and very hospitably entertained him, as he was a wealthy landowner, who had accidentally lost his mind, and, like all mad people of Ireland, had run down Kerry to this glen as the only means of a cure.

  77. We have not read or heard of gold mines in Kerry at any time.  Iron mines were formerly very considerable, especially around Kenmare and Killarney.  Copper mines were worked at Muckross and Ross on the Lakes of Killarney.  A valuable slate was quarried at Valentia.  Castleisland produces Irish slate, lapis hibernicus.

  78. We have given a full account of this battle in the "History of Muckross Abbey," c. iv.

  79. Col. Hussey, of Cahirnane, practicany proves in a letter to Secretary Dawson that pearls were found in Kerry in his days: "I have a dozen Kiery stones, the best of the kind I can get in the country, which shall be sent to you by the first opportunity.  As for red stones, or amethysists, I made a journey on purpose to Kerry to get some; but I find there is no going down the cliffs to search for them but in fine weather. . . Pray get some friend or other to stand by the Kerry stones while they are a cutting, for I very well know the tricks of 'em (them): they will pretend this and that stone not to be good and to have a flaw, when they are the best, and will lay them aside for themselves.  I send you a little Kerry pearle to put in the top of your seale, if you think fit; if not, though it is very inconsiderable and a mere trifle, it may purchase you a salute or a smile from some of the fair sex, who are generally taken with such trifles; if it does, I have my end in sending it.
    Flesk Bridge, Dec., 1702.                         MAURICE HUSSEY."

    There are a great number of letters of this colonel in the Record Office, Dublin.  Here is an amusing one, which paints the life in Cahernane House as graphically as the pen of Dickens.  The letter is addressed "To the Hon. Mortogh Griffin, at the Post Office, Dublin," 11 Feb., 1712.  Griffin was clerk of the Common Pleas, and had purchased some property in Kerry from the Hollow Sword Blade Company, says the authoress of "Kerry Records": - "Dear Sir - It was but the other day you and I parted, and yett we are since that time in a state of warr abroad.  Mr. Griffin being gone, and poore I, as you know, being confined with age and infirmity, and Bland Brewster being afraid of their iron works being burnt up, the Rapps of Glanflesk are up by night and are guilty of all the violence and villanies imaginable.  You will hardly believe that Tim Cartie, his brother Dermott, and Fineen Donoghue, alias Beg, invaded by horse on Saturday night last, an hour after candle light; the former came alone to my kitchen doore and asked for his 'Chosen MacCartie' (he would not deign to call her by the low name of Hussey!) meaning my daughter, Katie, went up to her chamber, and she desiring him to sit down, 'No, Coosen,' says he, 'I must go down and order my horses to be taken care of, and then I'll come up to you immediately.'  He came downe stairs, opens my common Hall doore and the foregate, and came in with twelve Rapps (Catholic retainers of Glenflesk}, five of which went up stairs in the dark, four stayed in the common hall, and four at my kitchen doore as centries.  This attempt was, it seems, to carry my coosen, Honor Connell, away to Glanflesk.  There was ten or twelve more in my turf house, expecting Tim Cartie would bring the young gentlewoman down stairs by force to carry hcr to Glanflesk.  All this, and this mobbing in my house was unknown to me, for it seems no one was suffered to come into my chamber; but my wife, by Providence, being above stairs and seeing such a number of strange faces, called very loudly for me; and, in short, one gun and one sword made all the fellows run out of the house with great precipitation when they saw me."  Very likely, indeed, that such well-armed Rapps accustomed to such violence and villainies as in the first part of the letter, would fly at the appearance of an old man worn out with infirmity.  But now comes the curious part of this letter, he accuses the only Protestant there, well knowing that he would get off scot free whatever may happen the Catholics, all of whom he exculpates.  He continues: "There came, the Monday following, five justices of peace, viz.: Herbert, Bland, Brewster, White, and Julian, to take the examination of my servants, five in number, to this purpose, and a great dale (sic) more, and they are to have a private session upon this subject next week.  I would send the examinations, but they must go to a jury (and this he hopes to prevent by the present letter by mentioning a Protestant among the Rapps, and evidently a friend of the clerk of the Common Pleas).  Francis Eagar, who is Captain Generall, in conjunction with his brother Tim, of all the Rapps of Glanflesk (bravo, old Hussey, this flank movement is worthy of your name) was one of those that invaded my house, with his hatt over his eyes, but could not disguise himself so as not to be known.  He, because he pretends to be a Protestant, arms all the rest (Catholics then, as at other times since then, were forbidden to carry or keep arms of defence or offence) and leads them at night where he pleases.  He is the dangerourest fellow by much in the Glin.  (Well done, old Jacobite, his delinquencies will save your friends.)  They say that Tim and Garrett Sullivan and Arthur Learie were within a pistoll shott of my gate, but I find no clear proofe, tho' all the presumption imaginable.  My servants know none of the gang in arms but Tim Cartie (Tim had a friend in Katie, Hussey's daughter, to whom he was afterwards married, to aid in the elopement of Honor Connell?) Frank Eagar, Fineen Beg Donoghue, and Tim Cartie's brother.  I think 'tis crime now (enough !} for them to carry firearms without a license (we transpose the original phrase here to save the sense) from the government, or any pretence to it, though they had no design upon the house.  The justices before mentioned," he adds, "after taking examinations, signed and sealed a Warrant directed to the sherriff and her Majesties officers to apprehend these men, but a letter from Mr. Dawson, by order of the Lords Justices, will be fifty times of more weight, and much sooner obeyed."  Dawson was his friend of the "pearl trifles," and so could be easily dealt with.  From Archdeacon Rowan's MSS.

    In his will in the Consistorial Registry of the diocese, 1714, he desires that he should be buried in his vault at Killegus in a decent and Christian manner"; and he adds: "I desire that my corps may be attended by neighbouring clergyman and a few friends; and this to be performed by night, if torchs, lights, and lanterns may be had, in the habit of St. Francis." -See "Lake Lore," p. 133-149.

  80. See an illustration of this bridge in p. 171 of last year's (1897) "Arch. Journal."

  81. "Logh Lane" :
    Momonia stagnum, Lochlenius undigue zonis
    Quatuor ambitur, prior cst ex aere, secunda
    Plumbea, de regido conflatur tertia ferro:
    Quarta renidenti pallescit linea stanno.
    Lough Lane, in Munster, four strong zones surround,
    With copper first, and next with lead 'tis bound,
    A third of iron, both these mines inclose;
    Pale tin the fourth, doth next environ those.

    These ancient verses of Nennius, who wrote in the ninth century, and which O'Flaherty gives us in his "Ogygia," shows that copper, lead, iron, and tin were worked from mines on the borders of the lakes of Killarney.  They must have been known and worked by the early Irish before the iron period, as we have hammers in flint found in the old works of these mines, one of which I have in our monastery, presented by Mr. A. H. Herbert, of Muckross.  The "Ogygia" adds: "As for copper, few mines in Europe have producued such a quantity of ore as that work lately discovered near Muckruss, having afforded in the space of a year, after its working, 375 tuns of ore, which produces from an ounce of the general sample 5 penny weight 8 grains of copper, being considerably more than a fourth part of pure metal of a very fine quality; and the Bristol Company, to whom the proprietors of this work sold it, must have extracted a greater portion of copper, as it is well known from the laws of attraction that a large portion of ore will yield more on the assay than a small quantity.  Lead ore hath been also discovered near this lake; and the adjacent mountains all abound with iron.  As to tin ore, I have picked up small specimens of ore which contain some tin." - "Ogygia."

  82. We know none of his works extant.

  83. But certainly very credulous to believe such silly nonsense.

  84. All this is exploded at present.  See a very well-written paper on this subject by the editor of the "Ulster Archæological Journal," Francis E. Bigger, Esq.

  85. It is yet almost inaccessible, except in the calmest weather, and when the wind blows from the sheltered side (see p, 25, "Arch. Journal," 1899.)

    The name Skellig is said to be of Scandinavian origin.  It means an island rock, scapulus maris.

    The "Annals of Innisfallen" give, under the year 812: "The Danes plundered Sceilig-Michael in the west of Munster, and took the anchorites that were in those places and kept them captives till they were starved to death."  In 823, we find in another incursion of the Danes, that "Eibgail of Skellig was carried away by the Gentiles, and soon after died from hunger and thirst. -"Annals of Ulster, 823."  See also "War of the Danes," p. 223.

  86. He was only Baron of Valentia and Earl of Clancare, but he never allowed himself to be called by either, as he preferred his own princely hereditary title of the MacCarthy More.

  87. This well was formerly visited by pilgrims on 3rd May and 14th September.  The parish of Kilcaskin is famous for its Teampul Fiachua, or Church of St. Fichua, of which only a few ruins now remain.

    In the parish of Tuosist is the townland of Kilmackilloge, or the Church of St. Makilloge.  The adjoining bay is called after the same saint, and near the church is a primitive Irish cell supposed to have been the hermitage of St. Mokilloge.  Lough Quinlan, which is close to this church, is called in our ancient MSS., according to O'Donovan, Lake Mochionlain.  The name Mockilloge is only an endearing form of Killian.  St. Killian, it is well knuvn, preached the faith in France and Franconin, in which latter country he was martyred, 8th July, 689.  His relics are still enshrined and honoured in Wursburg, which contains the copy of the Gospel he was reading when martyred, and which is besmeared with his blood. -Card. Moran, vol. ii., p. 243.

  88. Innisfallen was founded by St. Finian Cam.

    Cilefahah de bello loco, near Miltown, was founded by Geoffrey de Maricis, under the invocation of the Blessed Virgin, in the reign of King John.  The prior of this house was a lord in Parliament.  They were Regular Canons.

    Ballyanskellicks, founded by the monks of Skellig island, after the Danes plundered and destroyed that abbey by keeping the monks in close confinement till the greater number perished by hunger, in 812.

    Skelligs was founded by St. Finian Cam.

    Achavore, probably Monaster Ni Oriel (Smith, p. 82).

    Bantry was founded by the O'Sullivan Bere for Franciscans.

    A Trinity College MSS. (f. I, 18) gives us in the year 1266 the appointment of Dionysius as Bishop of Aghadoe.  Walcott's List of Suffragan Bishops gives us at least two other names - Gilbert, Bishop of Aghadoe, who, in A.D. 1306, was suffragan of the Bishop of Worcester; 4 John Caniere, Bishop of Aghadoe, suffragan also of the Bishop of Worcester in the year 1422.

    The Diocesan Returns for 1622 in Marsh's Library gives us the following: "There is one prebend left of the ruined church of Aghadoe, called Tunisbowell, value per annum twenty shillings, being the tithes of two plowlands in the parish of Templedrum."

    In the townland of Knockreer, now in the Mansion grounds, there is a curious stone of St. Mochuda, about which the legend of the monk of Innisfallen who wandered after the bird of Paradise who led him here to this copse of wood and kept him entranced for a hundred years, to prove how easy for God to make a thousand years as yesterday that is past: "A thousand years in the presence of God is as yesterday that is past."  This legend has been given by all our mediæval ascetics.  This stone, with the apparent impression of two knees, is yet visited by pilgrims and the many rude ex votos on the surrounding trees prove their faith in the efficacy of the prayers of S. Mochuada or Cuddihy.  Smith, on what authority we cannot find, says that Aghadoe was dedicated to St. Finian.  It is certain from the "Annals of Innisfallen," cited above, that the cathedral itself was dedicated to the most holy Trinity.  Cardinal Moran makes a mistake when he says that the sees of Aghadoe and Ardfert were considered to be distinct up to the beginning of the last century, for in the preconization of Richard Conald, 12 Aug., 1641, the names of both churches are mentioned: praeconium faciam ecclesiarum Ardfertensis et Acadensis (Card. Moran's "Archdall," p. 228; Brady's "Irish Bishops," p. 52).

    In the "Annals of Innisfallen" and other early records the see of Ardfert is sometimes called Ayferte, or Iferte, that is, the land of miracles, from the many miracles performed by St. Brendan and his disciples. St. Brendan is deservedly ranked by our ancient chroniclers among "the twelve Apostles of Erin" (see "Life of St. Brendan," by the Rev. Denis O'Donoghue, P.P., Ardfert, which contains everything hitherto known about him.  To his invaluable work we refer our readers for a full account of his wonderful voyage across the Atlantic and his admirable life and works.  Father O'Hanlon has also given a very learned life of the saint in his "Lives of the Irish Saints," May 16, p. 394.  Card. Moran gives the ancient life, in Latin, from the Liber Kilkenniensis (Marsh's Library), with very erudite notes; and the metrical life in the Cotton MSS., with scholiums and explanation of the text.  The metrical life was translated into very pleasing and flowing English verse by Archdeacon Rowan.  See "Actu S. Brendani," which also contains the "Navigatio S. Brendani."

    The Abbey of Ballynascelly, or Monte Sancti Michaelis of the order of St. Augustine, dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel.  It was originally founded on one of the skillocks, rocky islands, that lie westwards, remote in the sea, but afterwards it was translated to a more commodious place on the land of Iveragh; neither the time when it was founded, nor the founder, is known; only the "Annals of Innisfallen Abbey" tell that Flana Mac Cellach, Abbas Schelichensis, died in the year 885. -MSS. (i. i., 3), Trinity College.  In the barony of Iveragh is situated the parish of Valentia, an island known in Irish as Oileandairbre, i.e., "the island of the oak wood," and celebrated in pagan times as the abode of the chief magician, Mogh-Ruth.  It was a favourite resort of Christian piety in later ages.  It still retains the ruins of an old church called Kilmore, a holy well called Tobereendowney (a corruption of the Irish, "Tobar-righan Domnaigh"), at which the patron was kept on 22nd March; and another holy well, Tober-Finan, dedicated to St. Finan, frequented by pilgrims on the 17th March.  There is also the parish of Killemlagh, i.e., "the church of the borders," which is washed by the waters of the Atlantic.  The old church stands on an elevation about one-fourth of a mile from the shore, and commands a good view of the distant Skelligs.  The church was dedicated to St. Finan - not St. Finan the leper, as Smith has it, as he was not at any time, according to our ancient MSS., in Kerry - but St. Finan Cam, whose festival occurs on the 16th March, as is found in all the Irish calendars.  The bay here is also called Finan's bay.  His holy well, Irish script, is on the sea shore to the west of the old church.  There is another holy well called Irish script; the townland is also called Killabuonia, in Irish, Cille-baidhne, and sometimes Cille-Baine (the church of the wave).  There are two ancient burial places called Cill-oluaig and Cill-chaombrach.

    In the parish of Prior, called in Irish, "parish of the prior," are the ruins of an old abbey and church, which are gradually encroached on by the sea.  It is dedicated, like Skelligs, to St. Michael ihe Archangel.  St. Michael's well is situated in the south of the townland of Dungegan, and the patron was kept there on the 29th of Sept.  In the east of the townland of Kinnard West, in the same parish, is an old burial place called Regles, with the ruins of an abbey.

    In the parish of Caher, about a quarter-of-a-mile to the north of Caherciveen, at the north side of the little bay, is a curious anicent stone church or cell, built without any kind of cement, like those of Kilmakedar, and a few perches from it is a stone altar, at which stations are performed.  The cell is called Cill-a-bhearnain, and sometimes Cill-a-bharnoge.  On Church Island, in the parish of Drummod, there is a similar cell, or church, and with it a beehive house.  We are sorry to say that these latter are in a very dilapidated state, and in a few years will be unrecognisable as one of our most interesting relics of the ancient Irish Church, unless they are preserved by the Government.  This church and cells are said to have been erected by S. Finian Cam.  There are two flags exhibiting an ornamented cross indented: one of these is said to mark the grave of St. Finan.  On the west end of this island, and washed by the waters of the lake, is one of the ancient stone houses, of round form on the outside, but nearly square on the inside.  The walls are very rudely formed of large stones.  This island is sometimes called "Inisuasual," or "the noble island"; it has however retained to our days its first name, Oilean-a-teampull, Church Island.  A holy well, dedicated to St. Finan, is situated on the north shore of the lake.  The pattern was held on the 16th March, St. Finan's Day.

    In the parish of Killinaun, that is Cill-Lonain, the old church of St. Lonan, a pattern was held here on the 3rd March.  Near the side of the hill is Tubber-Gobnet, St. Gobnet's well.  A great many of the women of this parish were named after this saint.

    In the parish of Glenbeigh there is a holy well called Irish script, Tobberykeel.  St. Gregory is patron of the parish, and his day, on the 12th March, was kept as a holiday.

    The parish of Kilcrohan honours St. Crochan as patron.  North-west of the church is S. Crochan's well.  St. Crochan, alias St. Mochrun, is commemorated in our calendars on the 3rd August, but by the people of this parish on 1st August.  In this parish is Derrynane Abbey, in Irish, Irish script, i.e., the grove of Finian.  It is only about four miles from Loch Luigehach.  Here is also the celebrated Staigue Fort. -"Letters on Kerry," by O'Donovan, in Royal Irish Academy.

[ Conclusion ]